Theodore Abraham, MD

Professor of Clinical Medicine

Cardiology, Cardiology UCSF Health

My clinical interests are echocardiography and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). I direct the UCSF Echocardiography laboratory and co-direct the UCSF HCM Center of Excellence. I have expertise in transthoracic, stress and transesophageal echocardiography. I also have training and expertise in 3D and strain echocardiography. I treat patients and families with HCM with a special interest in evaluating patients and family members with suspected HCM. I also use advanced imaging to evaluate athletes with abnormal appearing hearts to separate physiologic from pathologic changes.

My research is focused on early diagnosis and risk prediction in HCM. I also have an interest in using strain echocardiography for early diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and prognostication in a variety of cardiac diseases, particularly, cardiomyopathies and heart disease in athletes.

  1. Mavacamten for treatment of symptomatic obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (EXPLORER-HCM): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.
  2. ASE Statement on the Reintroduction of Echocardiographic Services during the COVID-19 Pandemic.
  3. Exercise hypertension should be recalled in basal septal hypertrophy as the early imaging biomarker in patients with stressed heart morphology.
  4. Echo-Strain to Check Up on Checkpoint Inhibitors.
  5. Interobserver Variability in Applying American Society of Echocardiography/European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging 2016 Guidelines for Estimation of Left Ventricular Filling Pressure.
  6. The peripheral blood transcriptome in septic cardiomyopathy: an observational, pilot study.
  7. Sex-specific cardiac phenotype and clinical outcomes in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  8. Automated Echocardiographic Quantification of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Without Volume Measurements Using a Machine Learning Algorithm Mimicking a Human Expert.
  9. Correction to: Comparison of two software systems for quantification of myocardial blood flow in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  10. PET/CT Imaging of Cardiac Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptors in Nonobstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.
  11. Low Left Atrial Strain Is Associated With Adverse Outcomes in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Patients.
  12. Identifying Ventricular Arrhythmias and Their Predictors by Applying Machine Learning Methods to Electronic Health Records in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM-VAr-Risk Model).
  13. Left ventricular mechanical dispersion predicts arrhythmic risk in mitral valve prolapse.
  14. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Patients With Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Have a High Burden of Left Atrial Fibrosis by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
  15. Corrigendum to Defining the Role of Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Cardiovascular Disease [The American Journal of Cardiology 122 (2018) 1443-1450].
  16. Higher incidence of vasodilator-induced left ventricular cavity dilation by PET when compared to treadmill exercise-ECHO in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  17. Defining the Role of Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Cardiovascular Disease.
  18. Diastolic dysfunction is common and predicts outcome after cardiac surgery.
  19. Standardization of left atrial, right ventricular, and right atrial deformation imaging using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography: a consensus document of the EACVI/ASE/Industry Task Force to standardize deformation imaging.
  20. Allele-specific differences in transcriptome, miRNome, and mitochondrial function in two hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mouse models.
  21. Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Nonobstructive, Labile, and Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.
  22. Rest and Stress Longitudinal Systolic Left Ventricular Mechanics in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Implications for Prognostication.
  23. Stress Myocardial Blood Flow Heterogeneity Is a Positron Emission Tomography Biomarker of Ventricular Arrhythmias in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.
  24. Comparison of two software systems for quantification of myocardial blood flow in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  25. Evolution of Ventricular Hypertrophy and Myocardial Mechanics in Physiologic and Pathologic Hypertrophy.
  26. E/e' ratio and outcome prediction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the influence of outflow tract obstruction.
  27. Impact of peak provoked left ventricular outflow tract gradients on clinical outcomes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  28. Structural and Functional Correlates of Myocardial T1 Mapping in 321 Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.
  29. Role of Global Longitudinal Strain in Predicting Outcomes in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.
  30. A Good Heart Is Hard to Find: Even Early in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.
  31. Myocardial oxidative stress correlates with left ventricular dysfunction on strain echocardiography in a rodent model of sepsis.
  32. The Burden of Early Phenotypes and the Influence of Wall Thickness in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Mutation Carriers: Findings From the HCMNet Study.
  33. Evaluation of Structural Progression in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy.
  34. T1 mapping with cardiovascular magnetic resonance: an emerging clinical biomarker.
  35. Exercise-QTc is associated with diffuse interstitial fibrosis reflected by lower approximated T1 relaxation time in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients.
  36. Diffuse interstitial fibrosis assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance is associated with dispersion of ventricular repolarization in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  37. Evaluation of Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction With Four-Dimensional Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy-A Pilot Study.
  38. The E-wave propagation index (EPI): A novel echocardiographic parameter for prediction of left ventricular thrombus. Derivation from computational fluid dynamic modeling and validation on human subjects.
  39. Safety profile and utility of treadmill exercise in patients with high-gradient hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  40. Effect of Diffuse Subendocardial Hypoperfusion on Left Ventricular Cavity Size by 13N-Ammonia Perfusion PET in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.
  41. Nonobstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Low Mortality but Not Always Benign.
  42. The authors reply.
  43. Unique Abnormalities in Right Ventricular Longitudinal Strain in Systemic Sclerosis Patients.
  44. Common miR-590 Variant rs6971711 Present Only in African Americans Reduces miR-590 Biogenesis.
  45. Strain Echocardiography Parameters Correlate With Disease Severity in Children and Infants With Sepsis.
  46. Distinguishing ventricular septal bulge versus hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the elderly.
  47. Comparison of Clinical Features in Blacks Versus Whites With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.
  48. Left ventricular wall thickness in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a comparison between cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography.
  49. Echocardiographic Characterization of a Murine Model of Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy Induced by Cardiac-specific Overexpression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2.
  50. Pacemaker-induced transient asynchrony suppresses heart failure progression.
  51. Shape analysis of hypertrophic and hypertensive heart disease using MRI-based 3D surface models of left ventricular geometry.
  52. MPST but not CSE is the primary regulator of hydrogen sulfide production and function in the coronary artery.
  53. Current obstacles in management of hypertensive patients by performance-based care and importance of diagnostic tests.
  54. Sildenafil treatment attenuates ventricular remodeling in an experimental model of aortic regurgitation.
  55. Dyspnoea in a cancer patient.
  56. A Summary of the American Society of Echocardiography Foundation Value-Based Healthcare: Summit 2014: The Role of Cardiovascular Ultrasound in the New Paradigm.
  57. Comparison of Outcomes in Patients With Nonobstructive, Labile-Obstructive, and Chronically Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.
  58. Late gadolinium enhancement confined to the right ventricular insertion points in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: an intermediate stage phenotype?
  59. Apparent left ventricular cavity dilatation during PET/CT in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Clinical predictors and potential mechanisms.
  60. Utilizing ECG-Based Heartbeat Classification for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Identification.
  61. Hypertension should be ruled out in patients with hyperdynamic left ventricle on radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging, diastolic dysfunction and dyspnea on exertion.
  62. Could early septal involvement in the remodeling process be related to the advance hypertensive heart disease?
  63. Exercise heart rates in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  64. Effects of early and late-onset treatment with carvedilol in an experimental model of aortic regurgitation.
  65. Measuring ascending aortic stiffness in vivo in mice using ultrasound.
  66. Identifying Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Patients by Classifying Individual Heartbeats from 12-lead ECG Signals.
  67. Age-related changes in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy phenotype in transgenic mice and humans.
  68. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated Lys104Glu mutation in the myosin regulatory light chain causes diastolic disturbance in mice.
  69. Prevalence, clinical correlates, and functional impact of subaortic ventricular septal bulge (from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging).
  70. Two classic hemodynamic findings for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  71. Inhibiting mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchange prevents sudden death in a Guinea pig model of heart failure.
  72. CT characterization of myocardial substrate in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  73. Guidelines for performing a comprehensive transesophageal echocardiographic examination: recommendations from the American Society of Echocardiography and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists.
  74. Complete reverse remodeling in acute stress cardiomyopathy. Is preserved tissue contractility under stress related to reverse remodeling.
  75. Comparison of clinical presentation, left ventricular morphology, hemodynamics, and exercise tolerance in obese versus nonobese patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  76. Echoing the appropriate use criteria: the role of echocardiography for cardiovascular risk assessment of the asymptomatic individual.
  77. Guidelines for performing a comprehensive transesophageal echocardiographic examination: recommendations from the American Society of Echocardiography and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists.
  78. Letter by Yalcin et al regarding article, "Left ventricular wall thickness and the presence of asymmetric hypertrophy in healthy young army recruits: data from the LARGE Heart Study".
  79. Hypertrophy signaling pathways in experimental chronic aortic regurgitation.
  80. Increased mast cell numbers in a calcaneal tendon overuse model.
  81. Electromechanical relationship in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  82. Creatine kinase adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine energy supply in a single kindred of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  83. Risk stratification in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy-associated desmosomal mutation carriers.
  84. Multiphysics computational models for cardiac flow and virtual cardiography.
  85. American Society of Echocardiography Cardiovascular Technology and Research Summit: a roadmap for 2020.
  86. Patient-specific mitral valve closure prediction using 3D echocardiography.
  87. Relationship of delayed enhancement by magnetic resonance to myocardial perfusion by positron emission tomography in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  88. Three-dimensional regional strain analysis in porcine myocardial infarction: a 3T magnetic resonance tagging study.
  89. Two-dimensional strain profiles in patients with physiological and pathological hypertrophy and preserved left ventricular systolic function: a comparative analyses.
  90. Hyaluronic acid-human blood hydrogels for stem cell transplantation.
  91. New approach to intracardiac hemodynamic measurements in small animals: echo-guided percutaneous apical puncture.
  92. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy reduction of relative resting myocardial blood flow is related to late enhancement, T2-signal and LV wall thickness.
  93. Computing myocardial motion in 4-dimensional echocardiography.
  94. Comparison and effectiveness of regadenoson versus dipyridamole on stress electrocardiographic changes during positron emission tomography evaluation of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  95. Cardiac MRI evaluation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: left ventricular outflow tract/aortic valve diameter ratio predicts severity of LVOT obstruction.
  96. Outcomes of catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy.
  97. The diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.
  98. PET/CT assessment of symptomatic individuals with obstructive and nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  99. Cardiac transplantation in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy.
  100. Contribution of central adiposity to left ventricular diastolic function (from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging).
  101. Can quantitative regional myocardial dynamics contribute to the differential diagnosis of acute stress cardiomyopathy?
  102. Assessment of distribution and evolution of mechanical dyssynchrony in a porcine model of myocardial infarction by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.
  103. Incidence and predictors of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy undergoing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation for primary prevention.
  104. Galphas-biased beta2-adrenergic receptor signaling from restoring synchronous contraction in the failing heart.
  105. Serpina3n attenuates granzyme B-mediated decorin cleavage and rupture in a murine model of aortic aneurysm.
  106. Stress induced hypertensive response: should it be evaluated more carefully?
  107. Influence of atrial function and mechanical synchrony on LV hemodynamic status in heart failure patients on resynchronization therapy.
  108. Constitutive HIF-1a expression blunts the beneficial effects of cardiosphere-derived cell therapy in the heart by altering paracrine factor balance.
  109. Cardiac resynchronization by cardiosphere-derived stem cell transplantation in an experimental model of myocardial infarction.
  110. Utility of Doppler myocardial imaging, cardiac biomarkers, and clonal immunoglobulin genes to assess left ventricular performance and stratify risk following peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with systemic light chain amyloidosis (Al)
  112. Reader- and instrument-dependent variability in the electrocardiographic assessment of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy.
  113. Quantitative left ventricular contractility analysis under stress: a new practical approach in follow-up of hypertensive patients.
  114. Usefulness of intravenously administered fluid replenishment for detection of patent foramen ovale by transesophageal echocardiography.
  115. Transoesophageal echocardiography predictors of periprocedural cerebrovascular accident in patients undergoing catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation.
  116. Independent predictors of survival in primary systemic (Al) amyloidosis, including cardiac biomarkers and left ventricular strain imaging: an observational cohort study.
  117. Stress-induced regional features of left ventricle is related to pathogenesis of clinical conditions with both acute and chronic stress.
  118. QRS width and mechanical dyssynchrony for selection of patients for cardiac resynchronization therapy: one can't do without the other.
  119. Mitral regurgitation in cardiac resynchronization: solving another piece of the puzzle.
  120. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying ventricular dyssynchrony.
  121. Criteria predicting response to CRT: is more better?
  122. Prevalence and pathophysiologic attributes of ventricular dyssynchrony in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy.
  123. Electrocardiographic features of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia.
  124. Comprehensive desmosome mutation analysis in north americans with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy.
  125. Cardiac resynchronization therapy corrects dyssynchrony-induced regional gene expression changes on a genomic level.
  126. Morphologic variants of familial arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy a genetics-magnetic resonance imaging correlation study.
  127. Imaging cardiac resynchronization therapy.
  128. The role of echocardiography in hemodynamic assessment in heart failure.
  129. Prolonged RV endocardial activation duration: a novel marker of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy.
  130. Stress echocardiography: diastole to the rescue.
  131. Electrophysiological consequences of dyssynchronous heart failure and its restoration by resynchronization therapy.
  132. Mechanisms of enhanced beta-adrenergic reserve from cardiac resynchronization therapy.
  133. Correlation of left atrial diameter by echocardiography and left atrial volume by computed tomography.
  134. Diastolic dysfunction in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy transgenic model mice.
  135. Computational hemodynamic modeling based on transesophageal echocardiographic imaging.
  136. Noninvasive imaging in cardiac resynchronization therapy--Part 2: Follow-up and optimization of settings.
  137. Echocardiography in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the role of conventional and emerging technologies.
  138. Image integration in catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation.
  139. Noninvasive imaging in cardiac resynchronization therapy--part 1: selection of patients.
  140. Incidence and predictors of left atrial thrombus prior to catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation.
  141. Cardiac magnetic resonance assessment of dyssynchrony and myocardial scar predicts function class improvement following cardiac resynchronization therapy.
  142. Doppler myocardial imaging for early detection of right ventricular dysfunction in patients with pulmonary hypertension.
  143. Is echocardiographic assessment of dyssynchrony useful to select candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy? Echocardiography is useful before cardiac resynchronization therapy if QRS duration is available.
  144. 'Hypersynchronisation' by tissue velocity imaging in patients with cardiac amyloidosis.
  145. Reversal of global apoptosis and regional stress kinase activation by cardiac resynchronization.
  146. Diagnostic accuracy of arterial phase 64-slice multidetector CT angiography for left atrial appendage thrombus in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation.
  147. Echocardiography for cardiac resynchronization therapy: recommendations for performance and reporting--a report from the American Society of Echocardiography Dyssynchrony Writing Group endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society.
  148. Evidence of impaired left ventricular systolic function by Doppler myocardial imaging in patients with systemic amyloidosis and no evidence of cardiac involvement by standard two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography.
  149. Speckle-derived strain a better tool for quantification of stress echocardiography?
  150. Role of tissue Doppler and strain echocardiography in current clinical practice.
  151. Impact of arterial load and loading sequence on left ventricular tissue velocities in humans.
  152. Resolution of left atrial appendage thrombus by 64-detector CT scan.
  153. Long-term efficacy of catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy.
  154. Detection of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in cardiac amyloidosis with strain rate echocardiography.
  155. Utility of tissue Doppler and strain echocardiography in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy.
  156. Comparison of novel echocardiographic parameters of right ventricular function with ejection fraction by cardiac magnetic resonance.
  157. Vascular abnormalities in primary amyloidosis.
  158. Myostatin does not regulate cardiac hypertrophy or fibrosis.
  159. Beta-blocker therapy induces ventricular resynchronization in dilated cardiomyopathy with narrow QRS complex.
  160. TGFbeta inducible early gene-1 (TIEG1) and cardiac hypertrophy: Discovery and characterization of a novel signaling pathway.
  161. Myectomy or alcohol septal ablation surgery and percutaneous intervention go another round.
  162. Recessive arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia due to novel cryptic splice mutation in PKP2.
  163. Usefulness of two-dimensional speckle strain for evaluation of left ventricular diastolic deformation in patients with coronary artery disease.
  164. Penetrance of mutations in plakophilin-2 among families with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy.
  165. Analysis of postsystolic myocardial thickening work in selective myocardial layers during progressive myocardial ischemia.
  166. Tricuspid annular displacement predicts survival in pulmonary hypertension.
  167. Right ventricular function in asymptomatic individuals with a systemic right ventricle.
  168. Reno-protective effect of N-acetyl cysteine in patients with impaired renal function undergoing coronary angiography and interventions.
  169. Myocardial dyssynchrony and resynchronization.
  170. Clinical features of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy associated with mutations in plakophilin-2.
  171. Comparison of usefulness of echocardiographic Doppler variables to left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in predicting future heart failure events.
  172. Feasibility and variability of three dimensional echocardiography in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy.
  173. Cardiac resynchronization therapy: Part 1--issues before device implantation.
  174. Cardiac resynchronization therapy: Part 2--issues during and after device implantation and unresolved questions.
  175. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of ventricular dyssynchrony: current and emerging concepts.
  176. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: a United States experience.
  177. Two-dimensional strain--a Doppler-independent ultrasound method for quantitation of regional deformation: validation in vitro and in vivo.
  178. Two-dimensional acoustic pattern derived strain parameters closely correlate with one-dimensional tissue Doppler derived strain measurements.
  179. Analysis of the interaction between segmental relaxation patterns and global diastolic function by strain echocardiography.
  180. Relation of tissue displacement and strain to invasively determined right ventricular stroke volume.
  181. Increased right ventricular afterload induces postsystolic thickening of the ventricular septum in nonischemic hearts.
  182. Delayed onset of subendocardial diastolic thinning at rest identifies hypoperfused myocardium.
  183. Direct identification of subendocardial postsystolic thickening by intracardiac M-mode Doppler echocardiography.
  184. Left atrial myopathy in cardiac amyloidosis: implications of novel echocardiographic techniques.
  185. Strain echocardiography tracks dobutamine-induced decrease in regional myocardial perfusion in nonocclusive coronary stenosis.
  186. Strain rate and strain: a step-by-step approach to image and data acquisition.
  187. Clinical applications of strain rate imaging.
  188. Myocardial contractility by strain echocardiography: comparison with physiological measurements in an in vitro model.
  189. Strain and strain rate echocardiography.
  190. Time to onset of regional relaxation: feasibility, variability and utility of a novel index of regional myocardial function by strain rate imaging.
  191. Strain rate imaging for assessment of regional myocardial function: results from a clinical model of septal ablation.
  192. Regional asynchrony during acute myocardial ischemia quantified by ultrasound strain rate imaging.
  193. Myocardial strain: can we finally measure contractility?
  194. Effect of radiofrequency ablation on atrial mechanical function in patients with atrial flutter.
  195. Three-dimensional surface area of the aortic valve orifice by three-dimensional echocardiography: clinical validation of a novel index for assessment of aortic stenosis.
  196. Feasibility, accuracy, and incremental value of intraoperative three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in valve surgery.
  197. Accuracy of transesophageal echocardiography in preoperative determination of aortic anulus size during valve replacement.
  198. The retroisthmic cleft. Scintigraphic appearance and clinical relevance in patients with low back pain.
  199. An epidemiological study of dementia in a rural community in Kerala, India.