Steven Yukl, MD


Infectious Diseases

I am a physician-scientist at UCSF and the San Francisco VA. Since 2005, I have been conducting laboratory-based research aimed at understanding the barriers to curing HIV. My laboratory focuses on investigating the mechanisms that allow HIV to establish a latent infection (which is widely regarded as the main barrier to curing HIV) in the blood and tissues. After the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, we also became interested in the transcriptional regulation of SARS-CoV-2, another RNA virus. We are currently investigating how SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic transcription (which is analogous to RNA splicing) allows for variation in the expression of different coronavirus genes over time, and how these SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic RNAs interact with human cells to govern the pathogenesis of COVID-19.

N/A, 06/2008 - Fellowship, Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF)
N/A, 06/2004 - Residency, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics (Med/Peds), Duke University Medical Center
M.D., 06/2000 - Medicine, University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
B.S., 06/1995 - Chemistry, Stanford University
  1. Sanders-Beer BE, Archin NM, Brumme ZL, Busch M, Deleage C, O'Doherty U, Hughes SH, Jerome K, Jones RB, Karn J, Kearney MF, Keele B, Kulpa D, Laird G, Li JZ, Lichterfeld M, Nussenzweig MC, Persaud D, Yukl S, Siliciano RF, Mellors JW. Current HIV/SIV Reservoir Assays for Preclinical and Clinical Applications: Recommendations from the Experts 2022 NIAID Workshop Summary. AIDS research and human retroviruses 2023. PMID: 37126090

  2. Wedrychowski A, Martin HA, Li Y, Telwatte S, Kadiyala GN, Melberg M, Etemad B, Connick E, Jacobson JM, Margolis DM, Skiest D, Volberding P, Hecht F, Deeks S, Wong JK, Li JZ, Yukl SA. Transcriptomic Signatures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Post-Treatment Control. Journal of virology 2022. PMID: 36541802

  3. L. Perez, L. Reoma, S. Patro, P. Mudvari, B. Luke, B. Smith, S. Yukl, M. Kearney, A. Nath, E. Boritz. OP 1.10 – 00210 Clonal Dynamics within HIV-Infected CD4 T Cell Reservoirs after PD-1 Blockade under ART. Journal of virus eradication 2022. PMID:

  4. Martin HA, Kadiyala GN, Telwatte S, Wedrychowski A, Chen TH, Moron-Lopez S, Arneson D, Hoh R, Deeks S, Wong J, Yukl SA. New Assay Reveals Vast Excess of Defective over Intact HIV-1 Transcripts in Antiretroviral Therapy-Suppressed Individuals. Journal of virology 2022. PMID: 36448806

  5. Moron-Lopez S, Bernal S, Wong JK, Martinez-Picado J, Yukl SA. ABX464 decreases the total HIV reservoir and HIV transcription initiation in CD4 + T cells from HIV-infected ART-suppressed individuals. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2021. PMID: 34436569

  6. Lu MD, Telwatte S, Kumar N, Ferreira F, Martin HA, Kadiyala GN, Wedrychowski A, Moron-Lopez S, Chen TH, Goecker EA, Coombs RW, Lu CM, Wong JK, Tsibris A, Yukl SA. Novel assays to investigate the mechanisms of latent infection with HIV-2. 2022. PMID: 35476802

  7. Xie G, Moron-Lopez S, Siegel DA, Yin K, Polos A, Cohen J, Greenblatt RM, Tien PC, Lee SA, Yukl SA, Roan NR. Common and Divergent Features of T Cells from Blood, Gut, and Genital Tract of Antiretroviral Therapy-Treated HIV+ Women. 2022. PMID: 35296537

  8. Einkauf KB, Osborn MR, Gao C, Sun W, Sun X, Lian X, Parsons EM, Gladkov GT, Seiger KW, Blackmer JE, Jiang C, Yukl SA, Rosenberg ES, Yu XG, Lichterfeld M. Parallel analysis of transcription, integration, and sequence of single HIV-1 proviruses. 2022. PMID: 35026153

  9. Wu G, Zuck P, Goh SL, Milush JM, Vohra P, Wong JK, Somsouk M, Yukl SA, Shacklett BL, Chomont N, Haase AT, Hatano H, Schacker TW, Deeks SG, Hazuda DJ, Hunt PW, Howell BJ. Gag p24 is a Marker of HIV Expression in Tissues and Correlates with Immune Response. The Journal of infectious diseases 2021. PMID: 33693750

  10. Moron-Lopez S, Xie G, Kim P, Siegel DA, Lee S, Wong JK, Price JC, Elnachef N, Greenblatt RM, Tien PC, Roan NR, Yukl SA. Tissue-specific differences in HIV DNA levels and mechanisms that govern HIV transcription in blood, gut, genital tract and liver in ART-treated women. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2021. PMID: 34235864

  11. Telwatte S, Martin HA, Marczak R, Fozouni P, Vallejo-Gracia A, Kumar GR, Murray V, Lee S, Ott M, Wong JK, Yukl SA. Novel RT-ddPCR assays for measuring the levels of subgenomic and genomic SARS-CoV-2 transcripts. Methods (San Diego, Calif.) 2021. PMID: 33882362

  12. Telwatte S, Kumar N, Vallejo-Gracia A, Kumar GR, Lu CM, Ott M, Wong JK, Yukl SA. Novel RT-ddPCR assays for simultaneous quantification of multiple noncoding and coding regions of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Volume 292. Journal of virological methods 2021. PMID: 33667568

  13. Bacchus-Souffan C, Fitch M, Symons J, Abdel-Mohsen M, Reeves DB, Hoh R, Stone M, Hiatt J, Kim P, Chopra A, Ahn H, York VA, Cameron DL, Hecht FM, Martin JN, Yukl SA, Mallal S, Cameron PU, Deeks SG, Schiffer JT, Lewin SR, Hellerstein MK, McCune JM, Hunt PW. Relationship between CD4 T cell turnover, cellular differentiation and HIV persistence during ART. PLoS pathogens 2021. PMID: 33465157

  14. Telwatte S, Kumar N, Vallejo-Gracia A, Kumar GR, Lu CM, Ott M, Wong JK, Yukl SA. Novel RT-ddPCR Assays for determining the transcriptional profile of SARS-CoV-2. bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology 2021. PMID: 33469579

  15. Yukl SA, Khan S, Chen TH, Trapecar M, Wu F, Xie G, Telwatte S, Fulop D, Pico AR, Laird GM, Ritter KD, Jones NG, Lu CM, Siliciano RF, Roan NR, Milush JM, Somsouk M, Deeks SG, Hunt PW, Sanjabi S. Shared Mechanisms Govern HIV Transcriptional Suppression in Circulating CD103+ and Gut CD4+ T Cells. Journal of virology 2020. PMID: 33115867

  16. Moron-Lopez S, Telwatte S, Sarabia I, Battivelli E, Montano M, Macedo AB, Aran D, Butte AJ, Jones RB, Bosque A, Verdin E, Greene WC, Wong JK, Yukl SA. Human splice factors contribute to latent HIV infection in primary cell models and blood CD4+ T cells from ART-treated individuals. Volume 16 of Issue 11. PLoS pathogens 2020. PMID: 33253324

  17. Telwatte S, Kim P, Chen TH, Milush JM, Somsouk M, Deeks SG, Hunt PW, Wong JK, Yukl SA. Mechanistic differences underlying HIV latency in the gut and blood contribute to differential responses to latency-reversing agents. AIDS (London, England) 2020. PMID: 32910065

  18. Neidleman J, Luo X, Frouard J, Xie G, Hsiao F, Ma T, Morcilla V, Lee A, Telwatte S, Thomas R, Tamaki W, Wheeler B, Hoh R, Somsouk M, Vohra P, Milush J, James KS, Archin NM, Hunt PW, Deeks SG, Yukl SA, Palmer S, Greene WC, Roan NR. Phenotypic analysis of the unstimulated in vivo HIV CD4 T cell reservoir. eLife 2020. PMID: 32990219

  19. Timmons A, Fray E, Kumar M, Wu F, Dai W, Bullen CK, Kim P, Hetzel C, Yang C, Beg S, Lai J, Pomerantz JL, Yukl SA, Siliciano JD, Siliciano RF. HSF1 inhibition attenuates HIV-1 latency reversal mediated by several candidate LRAs In Vitro and Ex Vivo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2020. PMID: 32571938

  20. Hsiao F, Frouard J, Gramatica A, Xie G, Telwatte S, Lee GQ, Roychoudhury P, Schwarzer R, Luo X, Yukl SA, Lee S, Hoh R, Deeks SG, Jones RB, Cavrois M, Greene WC, Roan NR. Tissue memory CD4+ T cells expressing IL-7 receptor-alpha (CD127) preferentially support latent HIV-1 infection. PLoS pathogens 2020. PMID: 32353080

  21. Lee SA, Telwatte S, Hatano H, Kashuba ADM, Cottrell ML, Hoh R, Liegler TJ, Stephenson S, Somsouk M, Hunt PW, Deeks SG, Yukl S, Savic RM. Antiretroviral Therapy Concentrations Differ in Gut vs. Lymph Node Tissues and Are Associated With HIV Viral Transcription by a Novel RT-ddPCR Assay. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) 2020. PMID: 32168200

  22. S. Moron-Lopez, G. Xie, P. Kim, J. Wong, J. Price, N. Elnachef, R. Greenblatt, P. Tien, N. Roan, S. Yukl. OP 7.6 Tissue-specific differences in the mechanisms that govern HIV latency in blood, liver, gut and genital tract in ART-suppressed women. Journal of virus eradication 2019. PMID:

  23. S. Moron-Lopez, S. Bernal, J.M. Steens, J.K. Wong, J. Martinez-Picado, S.A. Yukl. OP 8.3 Intensification of ART with ABX464 decreases the total HIV reservoir and HIV transcription initiation in CD4 T cells from HIV-infected ART-suppressed individuals. Journal of virus eradication 2019. PMID:

  24. S. Telwatte, M. Montano, R. Resop, E. Battivelli, S. Morón-López, E. Verdin, W. Greene, A. Bosque, J. Wong, S. Yukl. PP 1.3 Single cell analysis reveals molecular signatures of HIV latency in primary cell models. Journal of virus eradication 2019. PMID:

  25. Telwatte S, Morón-López S, Aran D, Kim P, Hsieh C, Joshi S, Montano M, Greene WC, Butte AJ, Wong JK, Yukl SA. Heterogeneity in HIV and cellular transcription profiles in cell line models of latent and productive infection: implications for HIV latency. Retrovirology 2019. PMID: 31711503

  26. S. Telwatte, P. Kim, T.-H. Chen, J. Milush, M. Somsouk, P. Hunt, S. Deeks, J. Wong, S. Yukl. 10 Tissue-specific effects of latency-reversing agents on HIV transcriptional blocks in gut and blood. Journal of virus eradication 2019. PMID:

  27. S. Moron-Lopez, I. Sarabia, E. Battivelli, M. Montano, S. Telwatte, A. Bosque, E. Verdin, W. Greene, J.K. Wong, S.A. Yukl. 12 In-depth transcription profile comparison of multiple primary cell HIV latency models. Journal of virus eradication 2019. PMID:

  28. Jiang G, Maverakis E, Cheng MY, Elsheikh MM, Deleage C, Méndez-Lagares G, Shimoda M, Yukl SA, Hartigan-O'Connor DJ, Thompson GR, Estes JD, Wong JK, Dandekar S. Disruption of latent HIV in vivo during the clearance of actinic keratosis by ingenol mebutate. JCI insight 2019. PMID: 30944245

  29. Moron-Lopez S, Kim P, SøGaard OS, Tolstrup M, Wong JK, Yukl SA. Characterization of the HIV-1 transcription profile after romidepsin administration in ART-suppressed individuals. AIDS (London, England) 2018. PMID: 30531314

  30. Telwatte S, Lee S, Somsouk M, Hatano H, Baker C, Kaiser P, Kim P, Chen TH, Milush J, Hunt PW, Deeks SG, Wong JK, Yukl SA. Gut and blood differ in constitutive blocks to HIV transcription, suggesting tissue-specific differences in the mechanisms that govern HIV latency. PLoS pathogens 2018. PMID: 30440043

  31. Yukl SA, Kaiser P, Kim P, Telwatte S, Joshi SK, Vu M, Lampiris H, Wong JK. HIV latency in isolated patient CD4+ T cells may be due to blocks in HIV transcriptional elongation, completion, and splicing. Science translational medicine 2018. PMID: 29491188

  32. Jiang G, Nguyen D, Archin NM, Yukl SA, Méndez-Lagares G, Tang Y, Elsheikh MM, Thompson GR, Hartigan-O'Connor DJ, Margolis DM, Wong JK, Dandekar S. HIV latency is reversed by ACSS2-driven histone crotonylation. The Journal of clinical investigation 2018. PMID: 29457784

  33. Anna Cereseto, Yuntao Wu, Jan Davidson-Moncada, Thomas S. Uldrick, Joel Palefsky, Steven A. Yukl, Joseph K. Wong, Shokouh Makvandi-Nejad, Courtney V. Fletcher, Anthony T. Podany, Andrea Calcagno, C. William Wester, Francoise Brun-Vezinet, Sophie Matheron, Diane Descamps, Sima S. Toussi, Michael Rosenberg, Harjot K. Singh, Marshall J. Glesby, Charles Muiruri, Habib R. Omar, John A. Bartlett, Camille Libre, Julien Batisse, Santiago Guerrero, Roland Marquet, Jean-Christophe Paillart, Mark Spear, Yuntao Wu, Christina Karsten, Stefan Pöhlmann, Laure Papin, Coralie F. Daussy, Jamal Alfaisal, Lucile Espert, Fabien P. Blanchet, Julià Blanco, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk. Acetylation. 2018. PMID:

  34. S. Telwatte, S. Lee, M. Somsouk, H. Hatano, C. Baker, P. Kim, T.-H. Chen, J. Milush, P. Hunt, S. Deeks, J.K. Wong, S.A. Yukl. OP4.6 Gut and blood differ in mechanisms governing HIV transcription/latency. 2017. PMID:

  35. Henrich TJ, Hatano H, Bacon O, Hogan LE, Rutishauser R, Hill A, Kearney MF, Anderson EM, Buchbinder SP, Cohen SE, Abdel-Mohsen M, Pohlmeyer CW, Fromentin R, Hoh R, Liu AY, McCune JM, Spindler J, Metcalf-Pate K, Hobbs KS, Thanh C, Gibson EA, Kuritzkes DR, Siliciano RF, Price RW, Richman DD, Chomont N, Siliciano JD, Mellors JW, Yukl SA, Blankson JN, Liegler T, Deeks SG. HIV-1 persistence following extremely early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute HIV-1 infection: An observational study. Volume 14 of Issue 11. PLoS medicine 2017. PMID: 29112956

  36. Trapecar M, Khan S, Roan NR, Chen TH, Telwatte S, Deswal M, Pao M, Somsouk M, Deeks SG, Hunt PW, Yukl S, Sanjabi S. An Optimized and Validated Method for Isolation and Characterization of Lymphocytes from HIV+ Human Gut Biopsies. Volume 33 of Issue S1. AIDS research and human retroviruses 2017. PMID: 28882052

  37. Khan S, Telwatte S, Trapecar M, Yukl S, Sanjabi S. Differentiating Immune Cell Targets in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for HIV Cure. Volume 33 of Issue S1. AIDS research and human retroviruses 2017. PMID: 28882067

  38. Cockerham LR, Yukl SA, Harvill K, Somsouk M, Joshi SK, Sinclair E, Liegler T, Hoh R, Lyons S, Hunt PW, Rupert A, Sereti I, Morcock DR, Rhodes A, Emson C, Hellerstein MK, Estes JD, Lewin S, Deeks SG, Hatano H. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Lisinopril to Decrease Lymphoid Fibrosis in Antiretroviral-Treated, HIV-infected Individuals. Volume 2 of Issue 3. Pathogens & immunity 2017. PMID: 28936485

  39. Koelsch KK, Rasmussen TA, Hey-Nguyen WJ, Pearson C, Xu Y, Bailey M, Marks KH, Sasson SC, Taylor MS, Tantau R, Obeid S, Milner B, Morrissey O, Pinto AN, Suzuki K, Busch MP, Keating SM, Kaiser P, Yukl S, Wong JK, Hiener BM, Palmer S, Zaunders J, Post JJ, Chan DJ, Avery S, Milliken ST, Kelleher AD, Lewin SR, Cooper DA. Impact of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation on the HIV Reservoir and Immune Response in 3 HIV-Infected Individuals. Volume 75 of Issue 3. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) 2017. PMID: 28350553

  40. Kaiser P, Joshi SK, Kim P, Li P, Liu H, Rice AP, Wong JK, Yukl SA. Assays for precise quantification of total (including short) and elongated HIV-1 transcripts. Volume 242. Journal of virological methods 2016. PMID: 28034670

  41. Lee SA, Bacchetti P, Chomont N, Fromentin R, Lewin SR, O'Doherty U, Palmer S, Richman DD, Siliciano JD, Yukl SA, Deeks SG, Burbelo PD. Anti-HIV Antibody Responses and the HIV Reservoir Size during Antiretroviral Therapy. Volume 11 of Issue 8. PloS one 2016. PMID: 27483366

  42. Wong JK, Yukl SA. Tissue reservoirs of HIV. Volume 11 of Issue 4. Current opinion in HIV and AIDS 2016. PMID: 27259045

  43. Li P, Kaiser P, Lampiris HW, Kim P, Yukl SA, Havlir DV, Greene WC, Wong JK. Stimulating the RIG-I pathway to kill cells in the latent HIV reservoir following viral reactivation. Volume 22 of Issue 7. Nature medicine 2016. PMID: 27294875

  44. Yukl SA, Shergill AK, Girling V, Li Q, Killian M, Epling L, Li P, Kaiser P, Haase A, Havlir DV, McQuaid K, Sinclair E, Wong JK. Site-specific differences in T cell frequencies and phenotypes in the blood and gut of HIV-uninfected and ART-treated HIV+ adults. Volume 10 of Issue 3. PloS one 2015. PMID: 25811360

  45. Cockerham LR, Siliciano JD, Sinclair E, O'Doherty U, Palmer S, Yukl SA, Strain MC, Chomont N, Hecht FM, Siliciano RF, Richman DD, Deeks SG. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation are associated with HIV DNA in resting CD4+ T cells. Volume 9 of Issue 10. PloS one 2014. PMID: 25340755

  46. Li P, Fujimoto K, Bourguingnon L, Yukl S, Deeks S, Wong JK. Exogenous and endogenous hyaluronic acid reduces HIV infection of CD4(+) T cells. Volume 92 of Issue 9. Immunology and cell biology 2014. PMID: 24957217

  47. Wang C, Abdel-Mohsen M, Strain MC, Lada SM, Yukl S, Cockerham LR, Pilcher CD, Hecht FM, Sinclair E, Liegler T, Richman DD, Deeks SG, Pillai SK. Decreased HIV type 1 transcription in CCR5-?32 heterozygotes during suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Volume 210 of Issue 11. The Journal of infectious diseases 2014. PMID: 24935955

  48. Yukl SA, Kaiser P, Kim P, Li P, Wong JK. Advantages of using the QIAshredder instead of restriction digestion to prepare DNA for droplet digital PCR. Volume 56 of Issue 4. BioTechniques 2014. PMID: 24724845

  49. Dunham RM, Vujkovic-Cvijin I, Yukl SA, Broadhurst MJ, Loke P, Albright RG, Wong JK, Lederman MM, Somsouk M, Hunt PW, Martin JN, Deeks SG, McCune JM. Discordance between peripheral and colonic markers of inflammation during suppressive ART. Volume 65 of Issue 2. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) 2014. PMID: 24121758

  50. Yukl SA, Sinclair E, Somsouk M, Hunt PW, Epling L, Killian M, Girling V, Li P, Havlir DV, Deeks SG, Wong JK, Hatano H. A comparison of methods for measuring rectal HIV levels suggests that HIV DNA resides in cells other than CD4+ T cells, including myeloid cells. Volume 28 of Issue 3. AIDS (London, England) 2014. PMID: 24322272

  51. Hatano H, Yukl SA, Ferre AL, Graf EH, Somsouk M, Sinclair E, Abdel-Mohsen M, Liegler T, Harvill K, Hoh R, Palmer S, Bacchetti P, Hunt PW, Martin JN, McCune JM, Tracy RP, Busch MP, O'Doherty U, Shacklett BL, Wong JK, Deeks SG. Prospective antiretroviral treatment of asymptomatic, HIV-1 infected controllers. Volume 9 of Issue 10. PLoS pathogens 2013. PMID: 24130489

  52. Hatano H, Somsouk M, Sinclair E, Harvill K, Gilman L, Cohen M, Hoh R, Hunt PW, Martin JN, Wong JK, Deeks SG, Yukl SA. Comparison of HIV DNA and RNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue of HIV-infected controllers and noncontrollers. Volume 27 of Issue 14. AIDS (London, England) 2013. PMID: 24157906

  53. Yukl SA, Shergill AK, Ho T, Killian M, Girling V, Epling L, Li P, Wong LK, Crouch P, Deeks SG, Havlir DV, McQuaid K, Sinclair E, Wong JK. The distribution of HIV DNA and RNA in cell subsets differs in gut and blood of HIV-positive patients on ART: implications for viral persistence. Volume 208 of Issue 8. The Journal of infectious diseases 2013. PMID: 23852128

  54. Yukl SA, Boritz E, Busch M, Bentsen C, Chun TW, Douek D, Eisele E, Haase A, Ho YC, Hütter G, Justement JS, Keating S, Lee TH, Li P, Murray D, Palmer S, Pilcher C, Pillai S, Price RW, Rothenberger M, Schacker T, Siliciano J, Siliciano R, Sinclair E, Strain M, Wong J, Richman D, Deeks SG. Challenges in detecting HIV persistence during potentially curative interventions: a study of the Berlin patient. Volume 9 of Issue 5. PLoS pathogens 2013. PMID: 23671416

  55. Eriksson S, Graf EH, Dahl V, Strain MC, Yukl SA, Lysenko ES, Bosch RJ, Lai J, Chioma S, Emad F, Abdel-Mohsen M, Hoh R, Hecht F, Hunt P, Somsouk M, Wong J, Johnston R, Siliciano RF, Richman DD, O'Doherty U, Palmer S, Deeks SG, Siliciano JD. Comparative analysis of measures of viral reservoirs in HIV-1 eradication studies. Volume 9 of Issue 2. PLoS pathogens 2013. PMID: 23459007

  56. Pillai SK, Abdel-Mohsen M, Guatelli J, Skasko M, Monto A, Fujimoto K, Yukl S, Greene WC, Kovari H, Rauch A, Fellay J, Battegay M, Hirschel B, Witteck A, Bernasconi E, Ledergerber B, Günthard HF, Wong JK. Role of retroviral restriction factors in the interferon-a-mediated suppression of HIV-1 in vivo. Volume 109 of Issue 8. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2012. PMID: 22315404

  57. Yukl SA, Li P, Fujimoto K, Lampiris H, Lu CM, Hare CB, Deeks SG, Liegler T, Pandori M, Havlir DV, Wong JK. Modification of the Abbott RealTime assay for detection of HIV-1 plasma RNA viral loads less than one copy per milliliter. Volume 175 of Issue 2. Journal of virological methods 2011. PMID: 21536073

  58. Yukl SA, Shergill AK, McQuaid K, Gianella S, Lampiris H, Hare CB, Pandori M, Sinclair E, Günthard HF, Fischer M, Wong JK, Havlir DV. Effect of raltegravir-containing intensification on HIV burden and T-cell activation in multiple gut sites of HIV-positive adults on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Volume 24 of Issue 16. AIDS (London, England) 2010. PMID: 20827162

  59. Yukl SA, Gianella S, Sinclair E, Epling L, Li Q, Duan L, Choi AL, Girling V, Ho T, Li P, Fujimoto K, Lampiris H, Hare CB, Pandori M, Haase AT, Günthard HF, Fischer M, Shergill AK, McQuaid K, Havlir DV, Wong JK. Differences in HIV burden and immune activation within the gut of HIV-positive patients receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Volume 202 of Issue 10. The Journal of infectious diseases 2010. PMID: 20939732

  60. Li P, Ruel T, Fujimoto K, Hatano H, Yukl S, Eller LA, Liegler T, Kamya M, Gassasira A, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir DV, Wong JK. Novel application of Locked Nucleic Acid chemistry for a Taqman assay for measuring diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes. Volume 170 of Issue 1-2. Journal of virological methods 2010. PMID: 20863855

  61. Yukl S, Pillai S, Li P, Chang K, Pasutti W, Ahlgren C, Havlir D, Strain M, Günthard H, Richman D, Rice AP, Daar E, Little S, Wong JK. Latently-infected CD4+ T cells are enriched for HIV-1 Tat variants with impaired transactivation activity. Volume 387 of Issue 1. Virology 2009. PMID: 19268337

  62. Yukl S, Wong JK. Blood and guts and HIV: preferential HIV persistence in GI mucosa. Volume 197 of Issue 5. The Journal of infectious diseases 2008. PMID: 18260765

  63. Berrozpe G, Timokhina I, Yukl S, Tajima Y, Ono M, Zelenetz AD, Besmer P. The W(sh), W(57), and Ph Kit expression mutations define tissue-specific control elements located between -23 and -154 kb upstream of Kit. Blood 1999. PMID: 10515869