Monica Gandhi, MD, MPH

Professor of Clinical Medicine

HIV, Infectious Disease, and Global Medicine, Infectious Diseases

Monica Gandhi MD, MPH is Professor of Medicine and Associate Division Chief (Clinical Operations/ Education) of the Division of HIV, Infectious Diseases, and Global Medicine at UCSF/ San Francisco General Hospital. She also serves as the medical director of the HIV Clinic at SFGH ("Ward 86").. Dr. Gandhi completed her M.D. at Harvard Medical School and then came to UCSF in 1996 for residency training in Internal Medicine. After her residency, Dr. Gandhi completed a fellowship in Infectious Diseases and a postdoctoral fellowship at the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, both at UCSF. She also obtained a Masters in Public Health from Berkeley in 2001 with a focus on Epidemiology and Biostatistics.

Dr. Gandhi's current research program is on identifying low-cost solutions to measuring antiretroviral levels in resource-poor settings, such as determining drug levels in hair samples. Dr. Gandhi also works on pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment strategies for HIV infection in women. .

Dr. Gandhi also has an interest at UCSF in HIV education and mentorship. Dr. Gandhi co-directed the "Communicable Diseases of Global Health Importance" course in the Global Health Sciences Masters program from 2008-2015, and serves as the overall Education Director of the HIV, ID and Global Medicine Division. She also served as the principal investigator of an R24 mentoring grant from the NIH focused on nurturing early career investigators of diversity in HIV research, is the co-Director for the Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) Mentoring Program, and is the Chair of the Advisory Board for the UCSF Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health (BIRCWH). She directs the HIV/ID Consult Service at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH) and attends on the inpatient Infectious Diseases consult service.

MPH, 2001 - Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, Berkeley
ID fellowship, 1999 - School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco
M.D., 1996 - School of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Residency, 1996 - School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco
Honors and Awards
  • Selected as Co-Chair of AIDS 2020, International AIDS Society, 2020
  • Certificate of Commendation for POP-UP, Ward 86, San Francisco Board of Supervisors, 2020
  • UCSF Academic Senate Distinction in Mentoring, Professor Level, UCSF Academic Senate, 2020
  • Distinguished Alumni Award, School of Biological Sciences, University of Utah, 2020
  • Master Clinician Award, UCSF, 2019
  • Design Industries Foundation Fighting AIDS (DIFFA) San Francisco Award, DIFAA, 2018
  • Lifetime HIV Merit Award, HIV Congress, Mumbai, India, 2018
  • AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Constance B. Wofsy Women’s Health Investigator Award, ACTG, 2017
  • HIV Medical Association (HIVMA) Clinical Educator Award, HIV Medical Association, 2017
  • Vince Pons Award for Teaching in Clinical Infectious Diseases, UCSF, 2016
  • Defender of Humanity Award, UCSF ID Fellows, UCSF, 2015
  • John L. Ziegler Outstanding Mentoring Award, Global Health Sciences, UCSF, 2013
  • Meg Newman Teaching Award from the Positive Health Practice, San Francisco General Hospital, 2012
  • Sarlo Award for Teaching Excellence, AIDS Research Institute, UCSF, 2011
  1. Point-of-care and Near Real-time Testing for Antiretroviral Adherence Monitoring to HIV Treatment and Prevention.
  2. Facial Masking for Covid-19 - Potential for "Variolation" as We Await a Vaccine.
  3. Viral suppression rates in a safety-net HIV clinic in San Francisco destabilized during COVID-19.
  4. COVID-19 and HIV spotlight the U.S. imperative for permanent affordable housing.
  5. A group-based mental health intervention for young people living with HIV in Tanzania: results of a pilot individually randomized group treatment trial.
  6. Operationalizing HIV cure-related trials with analytic treatment interruptions during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: A collaborative approach.
  7. SARS-CoV-2 Community Transmission disproportionately affects Latinx population during Shelter-in-Place in San Francisco.
  8. Understanding preferences for HIV care among patients experiencing homelessness or unstable-housing: A discrete choice experiment.
  9. Approaches to Objectively Measure Antiretroviral Medication Adherence and Drive Adherence Interventions.
  10. The importance of PrEP persistence in preventing HIV infections on PrEP.
  11. Masks Do More Than Protect Others During COVID-19: Reducing the Inoculum of SARS-CoV-2 to Protect the Wearer.
  12. Use of Drug-Level Testing and Single-Genome Sequencing to Unravel a Case of HIV Seroconversion on PrEP.
  13. Extent of in-utero transfer of tenofovir from mother to fetus: a paired analysis of hair specimens collected at birth from a cohort in the United States.
  14. Urine Tenofovir Levels Measured by a Novel Immunoassay Predict HIV Protection.
  15. SARS-CoV-2 Community Transmission During Shelter-in-Place in San Francisco.
  16. Plasma Pharmacokinetics and Urinary Excretion of Tenofovir Following Cessation in Adults with Controlled Levels of Adherence to Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate.
  18. Improving Care Outcomes for PLWH Experiencing Homelessness and Unstable Housing: a Synthetic Review of Clinic-Based Strategies.
  19. Screening for Covid-19 in Skilled Nursing Facilities. Reply.
  20. Validated LC-MS/MS Panel for Quantifying 11 Drug-Resistant TB Medications in Small Hair Samples.
  21. confUrine Tenofovir Concentrations Correlate with Plasma and Relates to TDF Adherence: A Randomized Directly-observed Pharmacokinetic Trial (TARGET Study).
  22. A COVID-19 conference at AIDS 2020: Virtual.
  23. Determinants of Viral Resuppression or Persistent Virologic Failure After Initial Failure With Second-Line Antiretroviral Treatment Among Asian Children and Adolescents With HIV.
  24. Asymptomatic Transmission, the Achilles' Heel of Current Strategies to Control Covid-19.
  25. The Time for Universal Masking of the Public for Coronavirus Disease 2019 Is Now.
  26. Testing a Real-Time Tenofovir Urine Adherence Assay for Monitoring and Providing Feedback to Preexposure Prophylaxis in Kenya (PUMA): Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.
  27. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine and changes in kidney function and tubular health.
  28. Missed opportunities to prevent HIV infections among pre-exposure prophylaxis users: a population-based mixed methods study, San Francisco, United States.
  29. Social Support Mitigates Negative Impact of Food Insecurity on Antiretroviral Adherence Among Postpartum Women in Western Kenya.
  31. Uptake, engagement, and adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis offered after population HIV testing in rural Kenya and Uganda: 72-week interim analysis of observational data from the SEARCH study.
  32. Development and Validation of the First Point-of-Care Assay to Objectively Monitor Adherence to HIV Treatment and Prevention in Real-Time in Routine Settings.
  33. Moving Antiretroviral Adherence Assessments to the Modern Era: Correlations Among Three Novel Measures of Adherence.
  34. The Golden Compass Program: Overview of the Initial Implementation of a Comprehensive Program for Older Adults Living with HIV.
  35. Using Real-Time Adherence Feedback to Enhance Communication About Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy: Patient and Clinician Perspectives.
  36. Randomized controlled trial of a positive affect intervention to reduce HIV viral load among sexual minority men who use methamphetamine.
  37. Racial/Ethnic and HIV risk category disparities in PrEP discontinuation among patients in publicly-funded primary care clinics.
  39. Rectal Microbiome Alterations Associated With Oral Human Immunodeficiency Virus Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis.
  40. Short and long-term pharmacologic measures of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis use among high-risk men who have sex with men in HPTN 067/ADAPT.
  41. Low rate of sex-specific analyses in presentations at the Conference of Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) meeting, 2018: Room to improve.
  42. Tenofovir concentrations in hair strongly predict virologic suppression in breastfeeding women.
  43. Simultaneous analysis of 11 medications for drug resistant TB in small hair samples to quantify adherence and exposure using a validated LC-MS/MS panel.
  44. Motivational Interviewing to Reduce Drug Use and HIV Incidence Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men in Relationships and Are High Priority for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (Project PARTNER): Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.
  45. Impact of Estimated PrEP Adherence Patterns on Bone Mineral Density in a Large PrEP Demonstration Project.
  46. Testing a Real-Time Tenofovir Urine Adherence Assay for Monitoring and Providing Feedback to PrEP in Kenya (the PUMA study): A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial (Preprint).
  47. Brief Report: Short-Term Adherence Marker to PrEP Predicts Future Nonretention in a Large PrEP Demo Project: Implications for Point-of-Care Adherence Testing.
  48. Increased Social Support Mitigates the Negative Impact of Food Insecurity on Antiretroviral Adherence Among Postpartum Women in Western Kenya (P04-126-19).
  49. Measuring Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy via Hair Concentrations in India.
  50. Gendered dimensions of population mobility associated with HIV across three epidemics in rural Eastern Africa.
  51. Willingness to Donate Hair Samples for Research Among People Living with HIV/AIDS Attending a Tertiary Health Facility in Ibadan, Nigeria.
  52. Acceptability and Feasibility of Self-Collecting Biological Specimens for HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infection, and Adherence Testing Among High-Risk Populations (Project Caboodle!): Protocol for an Exploratory Mixed-Methods Study.
  53. Brief Report: Cocaine Use and Pre-exposure Prophylaxis: Adherence, Care Engagement, and Kidney Function.
  54. Validation of a Urine Tenofovir Immunoassay for Adherence Monitoring to PrEP and ART and Establishing the Cut-Off for a Point-of-Care Test.
  55. Association of anti-tuberculosis drug concentrations in hair and treatment outcomes in MDR- and XDR-TB.
  56. Addressing the Sexually Transmitted Infection and HIV Syndemic.
  57. Low tenofovir level in urine by a novel immunoassay is associated with seroconversion in a preexposure prophylaxis demonstration project.
  58. RAPID antiretroviral therapy: high virologic suppression rates with immediate antiretroviral therapy initiation in a vulnerable urban clinic population.
  59. Housing Instability Results in Increased Acute Care Utilization in an Urban HIV Clinic Cohort.
  60. Sex-Based Differences in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reservoir Activity and Residual Immune Activation.
  61. Antiretroviral Concentrations in Hair Strongly Predict Virologic Response in a Large Human Immunodeficiency Virus Treatment-naive Clinical Trial.
  62. Evaluating the Impact of Housing Status on Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Screening in an HIV Primary Care Setting.
  63. Missed Visits Associated With Future Preexposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Discontinuation Among PrEP Users in a Municipal Primary Care Health Network.
  64. Feasibility and acceptability of novel methods to estimate antiretroviral adherence: A longitudinal study.
  65. Patient and clinician perspectives on optimizing graphical displays of longitudinal medication adherence data.
  66. Mentoring the Mentors: Implementation and Evaluation of Four Fogarty-Sponsored Mentoring Training Workshops in Low-and Middle-Income Countries.
  67. Patient and provider perceptions of a comprehensive care program for HIV-positive adults over 50 years of age: The formation of the Golden Compass HIV and aging care program in San Francisco.
  68. Acquisition of tenofovir-susceptible, emtricitabine-resistant HIV despite high adherence to daily pre-exposure prophylaxis: a case report.
  69. 1298. Acquisition of TDF-Susceptible HIV Despite High Level Adherence to Daily TDF/FTC PrEP as Measured by Dried Blood Spot (DBS) and Segmental Hair Analysis: A Case Report.
  70. 2272. High Interest in Doxycycline for Sexually Transmitted Infection Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (Doxy-PEP) in a Multi-city Survey of Men Having Sex With Men (MSM) Using a Social-Networking App.
  71. Brief Report: A Panel Management and Patient Navigation Intervention Is Associated With Earlier PrEP Initiation in a Safety-Net Primary Care Health System.
  72. Similar tenofovir hair concentrations in men and women after directly observed dosing of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine: implications for preexposure prophylaxis adherence monitoring.
  73. Acquisition of Multidrug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection in a Patient Taking Preexposure Prophylaxis.
  74. Development and Validation of an Immunoassay for Tenofovir in Urine as a Real-Time Metric of Antiretroviral Adherence.
  75. Estrogen receptor-1 is a key regulator of HIV-1 latency that imparts gender-specific restrictions on the latent reservoir.
  76. Population mobility associated with higher risk sexual behaviour in eastern African communities participating in a Universal Testing and Treatment trial.
  77. Cumulative Antiretroviral Exposure Measured in Hair Is Not Associated With Measures of HIV Persistence or Inflammation Among Individuals on Suppressive ART.
  78. Novel methods to estimate antiretroviral adherence: protocol for a longitudinal study.
  79. Antiretroviral drug concentrations in hair are associated with virologic outcomes among young people living with HIV in Tanzania.
  80. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis With Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate/Emtricitabine and Kidney Tubular Dysfunction in HIV-Uninfected Individuals.
  81. Seroconversion on preexposure prophylaxis: a case report with segmental hair analysis for timed adherence determination.
  82. Loneliness in Older Adults Living with HIV.
  83. Utility of Different Adherence Measures for PrEP: Patterns and Incremental Value.
  84. Development and validation of an assay to analyze atazanavir in human hair via liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
  85. Degree of Housing Instability Shows Independent "Dose-Response" With Virologic Suppression Rates Among People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
  86. Brief Report: Adherence Biomarker Measurements in Older and Younger HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Tenofovir-Based Therapy.
  87. Ready-made and custom-made eyeglasses in India: a cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomised controlled trial.
  88. A Simple Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Optimization Intervention for Health Care Providers Prescribing PrEP: Pilot Study.
  89. Comparing pharmacologic measures of tenofovir exposure in a U.S. pre-exposure prophylaxis randomized trial.
  90. Comparison of Measures of Adherence to HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis among Adolescent and Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States.
  91. Isoniazid concentrations in hair and plasma area-under-the-curve exposure among children with tuberculosis.
  92. Brief Report: Lopinavir Hair Concentrations Are the Strongest Predictor of Viremia in HIV-Infected Asian Children and Adolescents on Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy.
  93. Newly Acquired Infection With Multidrug-Resistant HIV-1 in a Patient Adherent to Preexposure Prophylaxis.
  94. Newly Acquired Infection With Multidrug-Resistant HIV-1 in a Patient Adherent to Preexposure Prophylaxis.
  95. Strong Correlation Between Concentrations of Antiretrovirals in Home-Collected and Study-Collected Hair Samples: Implications for Adherence Monitoring.
  96. A Pharmacist-Led Program to Evaluate and Reduce Polypharmacy and Potentially Inappropriate Prescribing in Older HIV-Positive Patients.
  97. Individual and partnership factors associated with anticipated versus actual partner notification following STI diagnosis among men who have sex with men and/or with transgender women in Lima, Peru.
  98. Hair levels of preexposure prophylaxis drugs measure adherence and are associated with renal decline among men/transwomen.
  99. An LC-MS/MS-based method to analyze the anti-tuberculosis drug bedaquiline in hair.
  100. Defining a Cutoff for Atazanavir in Hair Samples Associated With Virological Failure Among Adolescents Failing Second-Line Antiretroviral Treatment.
  101. Newly Acquired Infection with Multi-Drug Resistant HIV-1 in a Patient Adherent to Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis.
  102. Predicting death over 8 years in a prospective cohort of HIV-infected women: the Women's Interagency HIV Study.
  103. Using the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST) to optimize an HIV care continuum intervention for vulnerable populations: a study protocol.
  104. Limitations of using the Lorenz curve framework to understand the distribution of population viral load: authors' reply.
  105. Differences in Cumulative Exposure and Adherence to Tenofovir in the VOICE, iPrEx OLE, and PrEP Demo Studies as Determined via Hair Concentrations.
  106. The Lorenz curve: a novel method for understanding viral load distribution at the population level.
  107. Association of Self-Reported Adherence and Antiretroviral Drug Concentrations in Hair Among Youth with Virologic Failure in Tanzania.
  108. The Effect of Same-Day Observed Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy on HIV Viral Load and Treatment Outcomes in a US Public Health Setting.
  109. Creating More Effective Mentors: Mentoring the Mentor.
  110. Association of age, baseline kidney function, and medication exposure with declines in creatinine clearance on pre-exposure prophylaxis: an observational cohort study.
  111. Geriatric Assessments and Association With VACS Index Among HIV-Infected Older Adults in San Francisco.
  112. A multi-analyte panel for non-invasive pharmacokinetic monitoring of second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs.
  113. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis for women.
  114. "The Pleasure Is Better as I've Gotten Older": Sexual Health, Sexuality, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Older Women Living With HIV.
  115. Quantifying Isoniazid Levels in Small Hair Samples: A Novel Method for Assessing Adherence during the Treatment of Latent and Active Tuberculosis.
  116. Movement between facilities for HIV care among a mobile population in Kenya: transfer, loss to follow-up, and reengagement.
  117. A qualitative assessment of barriers and facilitators to antiretroviral adherence in Thai patients.
  118. B-107 Distinct mechanisms of hormonal control of HIV latency in T-cells and microglial cells.
  119. "Wan Kanyakla" (We are together): Community transformations in Kenya following a social network intervention for HIV care.
  120. Pregnancy rates in HIV-positive women using contraceptives and efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy in Kenya: a retrospective cohort study.
  121. Behavioral intervention improves treatment outcomes among HIV-infected individuals who have delayed, declined, or discontinued antiretroviral therapy: a randomized controlled trial of a novel intervention.
  122. Using Lopinavir Concentrations in Hair Samples to Assess Treatment Outcomes on Second-Line Regimens Among Asian Children.
  123. Implementation and Operational Research: Pulling the Network Together: Quasiexperimental Trial of a Patient-Defined Support Network Intervention for Promoting Engagement in HIV Care and Medication Adherence on Mfangano Island, Kenya.
  124. Implementation challenges for long-acting antivirals as treatment.
  125. Nevirapine Concentration in Hair Samples Is a Strong Predictor of Virologic Suppression in a Prospective Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients.
  126. Longitudinal Trends in Sexual Behaviors with Advancing Age and Menopause Among Women With and Without HIV-1 Infection.
  127. Hair concentrations of antiretrovirals predict viral suppression in HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding Ugandan women.
  128. Strong Correlation Between Concentrations of Tenofovir (TFV) Emtricitabine (FTC) in Hair and TFV Diphosphate and FTC Triphosphate in Dried Blood Spots in the iPrEx Open Label Extension: Implications for Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Adherence Monitoring.
  129. Increase of perceived frequency of neighborhood domestic violence is associated with increase of women's depression symptoms in a nationally representative longitudinal study in South Africa.
  130. Efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir versus efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected pregnant Ugandan women.
  131. Comparing the novel method of assessing PrEP adherence/exposure using hair samples to other pharmacologic and traditional measures.
  132. Human papillomavirus knowledge, vaccine acceptance, and vaccine series completion among female entertainment and sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: the Young Women's Health Study.
  133. Assessment of HIV antiretroviral therapy adherence by measuring drug concentrations in hair among children in rural Uganda.
  134. Single-pill regimens for HIV-1 infection.
  135. A mentor training program improves mentoring competency for researchers working with early-career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds.
  136. Single-pill combination regimens for treatment of HIV-1 infection.
  137. Antiretroviral concentrations in small hair samples as a feasible marker of adherence in rural Kenya.
  138. A chronic kidney disease risk score to determine tenofovir safety in a prospective cohort of HIV-positive male veterans.
  139. Development and implementation of a workshop to enhance the effectiveness of mentors working with diverse mentees in HIV research.
  140. Smoking cessation and recidivism in the Women's Interagency Human Immunodeficiency Virus Study.
  141. Strong relationship between oral dose and tenofovir hair levels in a randomized trial: hair as a potential adherence measure for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).
  142. Common clinical conditions - age, low BMI, ritonavir use, mild renal impairment - affect tenofovir pharmacokinetics in a large cohort of HIV-infected women.
  143. 1607Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index, Functional Status, and Other Patient Reported Outcomes in Older HIV-positive (HIV+) Adults.
  144. Short communication: A low-cost method for analyzing nevirapine levels in hair as a marker of adherence in resource-limited settings.
  145. Understanding the disparity: predictors of virologic failure in women using highly active antiretroviral therapy vary by race and/or ethnicity.
  146. Association of self-reported race with AIDS death in continuous HAART users in a cohort of HIV-infected women in the United States.
  147. Pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir and efavirenz in food insecure HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women in Tororo, Uganda.
  148. Common Clinical Conditions - Age, Low BMI, Ritonavir Use, Mild Renal Impairment - Affect Tenofovir Pharmacokinetics in a Large Cohort of HIV-Infected Women. AIDS (in press)
  149. Hair and Plasma Data Show that Lopinavir, Ritonavir and Efavirenz All Transfer from Mother to Infant in Utero, but only Efavirenz Transfers via Breastfeeding. JAIDS Aug 63(5): 578-584
  150. Pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir and efavirenz in malnourished HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women in Tororo, Uganda. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (in press)
  151. Hair and plasma data show that lopinavir, ritonavir, and efavirenz all transfer from mother to infant in utero, but only efavirenz transfers via breastfeeding.
  152. Targeting imported malaria through social networks: a potential strategy for malaria elimination in Swaziland.
  153. Tenofovir use and urinary biomarkers among HIV-infected women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS).
  154. Acute pancreas allograft rejection is associated with increased risk of graft failure in pancreas transplantation.
  155. An Incidental Abscess in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.
  156. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice
  157. Track B Clinical Science.
  158. The effect of a "universal antiretroviral therapy" recommendation on HIV RNA levels among HIV-infected patients entering care with a CD4 count greater than 500/µL in a public health setting.
  159. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in CYP2B6 leads to >3-fold increases in efavirenz concentrations in plasma and hair among HIV-infected women.
  160. Visual function after correction of distance refractive error with ready-made and custom spectacles: a randomized clinical trial.
  161. An investigation of the possible interaction between the use of Vitamin C and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence and effectiveness in treated HIV+ women.
  162. Chapter 39 Special issues regarding women with HIV infection.
  163. Short-term garlic supplementation and highly active antiretroviral treatment adherence, CD4+ cell counts, and human immunodeficiency virus viral load.
  164. The effect of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 5164 on the time from Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnosis to antiretroviral initiation in routine clinical practice: a case study of diffusion, dissemination, and implementation.
  165. Microanalysis of the antiretroviral nevirapine in human hair from HIV-infected patients by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
  166. Analysis of pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African populations.
  167. Atazanavir concentration in hair is the strongest predictor of outcomes on antiretroviral therapy.
  168. Treatment switching in South Indian patients on HAART: what are the predictors and consequences?
  169. Low lopinavir plasma or hair concentrations explain second-line protease inhibitor failures in a resource-limited setting.
  170. Validation of a visual function and quality of life instrument in an urban Indian population with uncorrected refractive error using Rasch analysis.
  171. Erratum: Sensitive analysis of anti-HIV drugs, efavirenz, lopinavir and ritonavir, in human hair by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.
  172. A randomized clinical trial to evaluate ready-made spectacles in an adult population in India.
  173. Disclosure of complementary and alternative medicine use to health care providers among HIV-infected women.
  174. The feminization of an epidemic. Women and HIV in the United States.
  175. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor pharmacokinetics in a large unselected cohort of HIV-infected women.
  176. Association of child care burden and household composition with adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.
  177. Protease inhibitor levels in hair strongly predict virologic response to treatment.
  178. Sensitive analysis of anti-HIV drugs, efavirenz, lopinavir and ritonavir, in human hair by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.
  179. Association of complementary and alternative medicine use with highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation.
  180. Highly active antiretroviral therapy reduces urinary albumin excretion in women with HIV infection.
  181. Association between living with children and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.
  182. Patterns, predictors, and consequences of initial regimen type among HIV-infected women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  183. Association between complementary and alternative medicine use and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.
  184. Poverty, unstable housing, and HIV infection among women living in the United States.
  185. Acquisition of new sexual partners among women with HIV infection: patterns of disclosure and sexual behavior within new partnerships.
  186. Association of cigarette smoking with HIV prognosis among women in the HAART era: a report from the women's interagency HIV study.
  187. Eligibility criteria for HIV clinical trials and generalizability of results: the gap between published reports and study protocols.
  188. Prevalence of clinical symptoms associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.
  189. Journal of Dental Research
  190. Sex differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
  191. Human herpesvirus 8, Kaposi's sarcoma, and associated conditions.
  192. Hair it is: the long and short of monitoring antiretroviral treatment.
  193. Does patient sex affect human immunodeficiency virus levels?