George Rutherford, MD

Professor

Prevention Science

My research interests are the epidemiology and prevention of infectious and tropical diseases of public health importance, both internationally and domestically, with a primary focus on HIV and AIDS. My work is funded primarily by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the Presidential Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. I also have smaller projects dealing with the epidemiology of tuberculosis in California, the prevention of childhood injury, immunizations and bioterrorism. I am a member of the AIDS Research Institute's Executive Committee.

Education
2018 - Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Champion Training, University of California
Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer, 1984 - , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
PGY-4, 1982 - Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego
PGY-3, 1981 - Paediatrics, University of Toronto - Hospital for Sick Children
PGY-1, PGY-2, 1980 - Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego
M.D., 1978 - Medicine, Duke University
B.S., 1975 - Chemistry, Stanford University
A.M., 1975 - History, Stanford Unviersity
A.B., 1974 - Classics, Stanford University
Websites
Publications
  1. Facial Masking for Covid-19 - Potential for "Variolation" as We Await a Vaccine.
  2. HIV Care Continuum and Meeting 90-90-90 Targets: Cascade of Care Analyses of a U.S. Military Cohort.
  3. Will Coronavirus Disease 2019 Become Seasonal?
  4. Estimation of effects of contact tracing and mask adoption on COVID-19 transmission in San Francisco: a modeling study.
  5. Can HIV recent infection surveillance help us better understand where primary prevention efforts should be targeted? Results of three pilots integrating a recent infection testing algorithm into routine programme activities in Kenya and Zimbabwe.
  6. RECENT HIV INFECTION SURVEILLANCE IN ROUTINE HIV TESTING IN NAIROBI, KENYA: A FEASIBILITY STUDY.
  7. Screening for Park Access during a Primary Care Social Determinants Screen.
  8. The impact of different types of violence on Ebola virus disease transmission during the 2018-2020 outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  9. LIFETIME SYPHILIS PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS AMONG FEMALE PRISONERS IN BRAZIL.
  10. The Association of Knowledge, Attitudes and Access with Park Use before and after a Park-Prescription Intervention for Low-Income Families in the U.S.
  11. Economic compensation interventions to increase uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
  12. Service delivery interventions to increase uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention: A systematic review.
  13. Projections of epidemic transmission and estimation of vaccination impact during an ongoing Ebola virus disease outbreak in Northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo, as of Feb. 25, 2019.
  14. Estimating the impact of violent events on transmission in Ebola virus disease outbreak, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2018-2019.
  15. Real-time predictions of the 2018-2019 Ebola virus disease outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo using Hawkes point process models.
  16. Immunization coverage among refugee children in Berlin.
  17. Clinic and park partnerships for childhood resilience: A prospective study of park prescriptions.
  18. Neurological, cognitive, and psychological findings among survivors of Ebola virus disease from the 1995 Ebola outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo: a cross-sectional study.
  19. The Continuing Value of CD4 Cell Count Monitoring for Differential HIV Care and Surveillance.
  20. Projections of Ebola outbreak size and duration with and without vaccine use in Équateur, Democratic Republic of Congo, as of May 27, 2018.
  21. Primary HIV prevention in pregnant and lactating Ugandan women: A randomized trial.
  22. Does prior dengue virus exposure worsen clinical outcomes of Zika virus infection? A systematic review, pooled analysis and lessons learned.
  23. Overdose mortality rates in Croatia and factors associated with self-reported drug overdose among persons who inject drugs in three Croatian cities.
  24. Supportive interventions to improve retention on ART in people with HIV in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review.
  25. Disclosure and Clinical Outcomes Among Young Adolescents Living With HIV in Kenya.
  26. Primary antifungal prophylaxis for cryptococcal disease in HIV-positive people.
  27. Understanding why HIV-infected persons disengaged from pre-ART care in Freetown, Sierra Leone: a qualitative study.
  28. Bisexual and Bidirectional: Assessing the Potential for HIV Bridging in Mozambique.
  29. Mortality Rate and Predictors in Children Under 15 Years Old Who Acquired HIV from Mother to Child Transmission in Paraguay.
  30. Linking private, for-profit providers to public sector services for HIV and tuberculosis co-infected patients: A systematic review.
  31. Strengthening Routine Data Systems to Track the HIV Epidemic and Guide the Response in Sub-Saharan Africa.
  32. Anatomy of a Hotspot: Chain and Seroepidemiology of Ebola Virus Transmission, Sukudu, Sierra Leone, 2015-16.
  33. Food Insecurity as a Risk Factor for Outcomes Related to Ebola Virus Disease in Kono District, Sierra Leone: A Cross-Sectional Study.
  34. Modes of HIV transmission among adolescents and young adults aged 10-24 years in Kenya.
  35. Effect of park prescriptions with and without group visits to parks on stress reduction in low-income parents: SHINE randomized trial.
  36. Low bone mineral density among HIV-infected patients in Brazil.
  37. Internet-based biosurveillance methods for vector-borne diseases: Are they novel public health tools or just novelties?
  38. HIV and hepatitis B and C co-infection among people who inject drugs in Zanzibar.
  39. Supplementary antimicrobials for patients with HIV and <100 CD4 cells/µL are associated with improved survival.
  40. Ritonavir-Boosted Darunavir Plus Two Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors versus Other Regimens for Initial Antiretroviral Therapy for People with HIV Infection: A Systematic Review.
  41. Refining Current Scientific Priorities and Identifying New Scientific Gaps in HIV-Related Heart, Lung, Blood, and Sleep Research.
  42. Is 90-90-90 achievable?
  43. Efavirenz or nevirapine in three-drug combination therapy with two nucleoside or nucleotide-reverse transcriptase inhibitors for initial treatment of HIV infection in antiretroviral-naïve individuals.
  44. Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy prevents HIV transmission to seronegative sexual partners.
  45. Minimally Symptomatic Infection in an Ebola 'Hotspot': A Cross-Sectional Serosurvey.
  46. Dolutegravir Plus Two Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors versus Efavirenz Plus Two Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors As Initial Antiretroviral Therapy for People with HIV: A Systematic Review.
  47. Design and evaluation of a park prescription program for stress reduction and health promotion in low-income families: The Stay Healthy in Nature Everyday (SHINE) study protocol.
  48. Evaluating Google Flu Trends in Latin America: Important Lessons for the Next Phase of Digital Disease Detection.
  49. Cefazolin versus Nafcillin for Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection in a California Tertiary Medical Center.
  50. Detectable HIV Viral Load in Kenya: Data from a Population-Based Survey.
  51. Evaluation of Kenya's readiness to transition from sentinel surveillance to routine HIV testing for antenatal clinic-based HIV surveillance.
  52. Effectiveness of semen washing to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and assist pregnancy in HIV-discordant couples: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
  53. Gestational dating by metabolic profile at birth: a California cohort study.
  54. Initiating antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients with >500 CD4 cells/µL provides more benefit than delaying treatment.
  55. Feasibility and effectiveness of a brief, intensive phylogenetics workshop in a middle-income country.
  56. Validating the Use of Google Trends to Enhance Pertussis Surveillance in California.
  57. Misclassification of men with reported HIV infection in Ukraine.
  58. Social network analysis identified central outcomes for core outcome sets using systematic reviews of HIV/AIDS.
  59. Enhancing Maternal and Child Health using a Combined Mother & Child Health Booklet in Kenya.
  60. Training for Better Management: Avante Zambézia, PEPFAR and Improving the Quality of Administrative Services Comment on "Implementation of a Health Management Mentoring Program: Year-1 Evaluation of Its Impact on Health System Strengthening in Zambézia
  61. High HIV prevalence in a respondent-driven sampling survey of injection drug users in Tehran, Iran.
  62. Call for a California coccidioidomycosis consortium to face the top ten challenges posed by a recalcitrant regional disease.
  63. Slowing of the HIV epidemic in Ukraine: evidence from case reporting and key population surveys, 2005-2012.
  64. High-risk motorcycle taxi drivers in the HIV/AIDS era: a respondent-driven sampling survey in Kampala, Uganda.
  65. Access to harm reduction programs among persons who inject drugs: findings from a respondent-driven sampling survey in Tehran, Iran.
  66. Burden of HIV infection among children aged 18 months to 14 years in Kenya: results from a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey.
  67. Contraceptive practices and fertility desires among HIV-infected and uninfected women in Kenya: results from a nationally representative study.
  68. Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012.
  69. Kenya AIDS Indicator Surveys 2007 and 2012: implications for public health policies for HIV prevention and treatment.
  70. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Kenya: results from a nationally representative study.
  71. Status of voluntary medical male circumcision in Kenya: findings from 2 nationally representative surveys in Kenya, 2007 and 2012.
  72. Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: a systematic review.
  73. Improving antiretroviral therapy scale-up and effectiveness through service integration and decentralization.
  74. Predicting treatment failure in adults and children on antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review of the performance characteristics of the 2010 WHO immunologic and clinical criteria for virologic failure.
  75. Treatment of Kaposi sarcoma in children with HIV-1 infection.
  76. Yellow fever vaccine for patients with HIV infection.
  77. The accessibility of firearms and risk for suicide and homicide victimization among household members: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
  78. Underreporting of HIV transmission among men who have sex with men in the Ukraine.
  79. Effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programmes in Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania.
  80. University students and the risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in Uganda: the Crane survey.
  81. Antiretroviral therapy for prevention of HIV transmission in HIV-discordant couples.
  82. Perceptions of child discipline and its contributions to child abuse in a low-income community in Nairobi, Kenya.
  83. Ultrasound measurements of carotid intima-media thickness and plaque in HIV-infected patients on the Mediterranean diet.
  84. Toxicity-related antiretroviral drug treatment modifications in individuals starting therapy: a cohort analysis of time patterns, sex, and other risk factors.
  85. Maternal risk factors for HIV infection in infants in northeastern Brazil.
  86. Antiretroviral therapy for prevention of HIV transmission in HIV-discordant couples.
  87. HIV among MSM in a large middle-income country.
  88. Is the rate of CD4 cell decline changing over time in antiretroviral-naïve patients?
  89. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Brazil.
  90. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis.
  91. Acquisition of GB virus type C and lower mortality in patients with advanced HIV disease.
  92. Mobile phone text messaging for promoting adherence to antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection.
  93. Interventions to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy in children with HIV infection.
  94. Antiretroviral therapy and the prevention of sexually transmitted HIV infection.
  95. Antiretroviral therapy for prevention of HIV transmission in HIV-discordant couples.
  96. Antiretroviral drug resistance in a respondent-driven sample of HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Brazil.
  97. Reliability of self-report of HIV status among men who have sex with men in Brazil.
  98. Antiretroviral therapy for prevention of HIV transmission in HIV-discordant couples.
  99. The public health impact of coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California.
  100. Population-based biomedical sexually transmitted infection control interventions for reducing HIV infection.
  101. Human herpesvirus 8 infection in children and adults in a population-based study in rural Uganda.
  102. Depression and HIV in Botswana: a population-based study on gender-specific socioeconomic and behavioral correlates.
  103. Efavirenz or nevirapine in three-drug combination therapy with two nucleoside-reverse transcriptase inhibitors for initial treatment of HIV infection in antiretroviral-naïve individuals.
  104. Tenofovir or zidovudine in three-drug combination therapy with one nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for initial treatment of HIV infection in antiretroviral-naïve individuals.
  105. Stavudine or zidovudine in three-drug combination therapy for initial treatment of HIV infection in antiretroviral-naïve individuals.
  106. Public health triangulation: approach and application to synthesizing data to understand national and local HIV epidemics.
  107. Prevention of diarrhoea in children with HIV infection or exposure to maternal HIV infection.
  108. Optimal time for initiation of antiretroviral therapy in asymptomatic, HIV-infected, treatment-naive adults.
  109. Developing WHO guidelines with pragmatic, structured, evidence-based processes: A case study.
  110. Distant sequelae of traumatic brain injury: premature mortality and intracranial neoplasms.
  111. Long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury.
  112. Estimating the healthcare burden of osteomyelitis in Uganda.
  113. Correlates of unprotected receptive anal intercourse among gay and bisexual men: Kampala, Uganda.
  114. Dyslipidemia and adherence to the Mediterranean diet in Croatian HIV-infected patients during the first year of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  115. Race, place and AIDS: the role of socioeconomic context on racial disparities in treatment and survival in San Francisco.
  116. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower risk of body-shape changes in Croatian patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy.
  117. The role of breast-feeding in the prevention of Helicobacter pylori infection: a systematic review.
  118. Assessment of ultrasound for use in detecting lipoatrophy in HIV-infected patients taking combination antiretroviral therapy.
  119. Interventions for preventing late postnatal mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
  120. Condoms in concentrated and generalised HIV epidemics.
  121. The efficacy of behavioral interventions in reducing HIV risk behaviors and incident sexually transmitted diseases in heterosexual African Americans.
  122. Using respondent-driven sampling methodology for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance in international settings: a systematic review.
  123. Implementation challenges to using respondent-driven sampling methodology for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance: field experiences in international settings.
  124. Think globally, act locally, and collaborate internationally: global health sciences at the University of California, San Francisco.
  125. Family structure and adolescent sexual behavior in a poor area of São Paulo, Brazil.
  126. Insights from a survey of sexual behavior among a group of at-risk women in Tehran, Iran, 2006.
  127. The effect of HIV on morbidity and mortality in children with severe malarial anaemia.
  128. Gay and bisexual men in Kampala, Uganda.
  129. Antiretroviral regimens for patients with HIV who fail first-line antiretroviral therapy.
  130. Deaths and injuries attributed to infant crib bumper pads.
  131. HIV risk behavior among injection drug users in Tehran, Iran.
  132. Estimating severe coccidioidomycosis in California.
  133. Prevalence, incidence and mortality associated with tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda.
  134. The public health need and present status of a vaccine for the prevention of coccidioidomycosis.
  135. Antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for occupational HIV exposure.
  136. The epidemiology of HIV and AIDS in the world.
  137. AIDS prevention research in low and middle-income countries: increasing the dissemination of study results in the scientific literature.
  138. Thyroid function and perchlorate in drinking water: an evaluation among California newborns, 1998.
  139. Stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine combination therapy for treatment of HIV infection and AIDS in adults.
  140. The role of BCG in prevention of leprosy: a meta-analysis.
  141. An archived lot of coccidioidin induces specific coccidioidal delayed-type hypersensitivity and correlates with in vitro assays of coccidioidal cellular immune response.
  142. A meta-analysis of the effect of high weight on asthma.
  143. Changes in sexual behavior and risk of HIV transmission after antiretroviral therapy and prevention interventions in rural Uganda.
  144. Antifungal interventions for the primary prevention of cryptococcal disease in adults with HIV.
  145. Potential deterrent effect of name-based HIV infection surveillance.
  146. Pediatric acute lung injury: prospective evaluation of risk factors associated with mortality.
  147. Opportunistic infections in hospitalized HIV-infected adults in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: a cross-sectional study.
  148. A matched case-control study evaluating the effectiveness of speed humps in reducing child pedestrian injuries.
  149. Population-based interventions for reducing sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection.
  150. Primary congenital hypothyroidism, newborn thyroid function, and environmental perchlorate exposure among residents of a Southern California community.
  151. Where should infants sleep? A comparison of risk for suffocation of infants sleeping in cribs, adult beds, and other sleeping locations.
  152. Risks of serious complications and death from smallpox vaccination: a systematic review of the United States experience, 1963-1968.
  153. Emerging HIV-1 epidemic in China in men who have sex with men.
  154. Risk factors for incident HIV infection among anonymous HIV testing site clients in Santos, Brazil: 1996-1999.
  155. Three- or four- versus two-drug antiretroviral maintenance regimens for HIV infection.
  156. Nonoxynol-9 spermicide for prevention of vaginally acquired HIV and other sexually transmitted infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials including more than 5000 women.
  157. Skateboard-associated injuries: participation-based estimates and injury characteristics.
  158. International collaboration in conducting systematic reviews: the Cochrane Collaborative Review Group on HIV Infection and AIDS.
  159. Nonoxynol-9 for preventing vaginal acquisition of HIV infection by women from men.
  160. Nonoxynol-9 for preventing vaginal acquisition of sexually transmitted infections by women from men.
  161. The Cochrane HIV/AIDS review group and evidence-based practice in nursing.
  162. Population-based interventions for reducing sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection.
  163. Surveillance for incident HIV infection: new technology and new opportunities.
  164. Three- or four- versus two-drug antiretroviral maintenance regimens for HIV infection.
  165. Research in the Veterans Health Administration: the report of the Research Realignment Advisory Committee.
  166. Medicaid managed care and public health data.
  167. Public health, communicable diseases, and managed care: Will managed care improve or weaken communicable disease control?
  168. Truck drivers in Brazil: prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, risk behavior and potential for spread of infection.
  169. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a California State Prison, 1991.
  170. Fatiguing illness among employees in three large state office buildings, California, 1993: was there an outbreak?
  171. Risk factors for injuries from in-line skating and the effectiveness of safety gear.
  172. Epidemiology and control of coccidioidomycosis in California.
  173. An outbreak of cholera from food served on an international aircraft.
  174. Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in California, 1991 to 1992.
  175. HIV infection in women.
  176. Lyme disease in northwestern coastal California.
  177. Measles epidemic from failure to immunize.
  178. Determinants of survival in adult Brazilian AIDS patients, 1982-1989. The Brazilian State AIDS Program Co-Ordinators.
  179. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
  180. Mesocestoides (Cestoda) infection in a California child.
  181. Progression and clinical outcome of infection due to human immunodeficiency virus.
  182. Cysticercosis: first 12 months of reporting in California.
  183. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus, San Francisco, 1981-1989.
  184. The draft lottery and AIDS: evidence against increased intravenous drug use by Vietnam-era veterans.
  185. Partner notification and the control of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Two years of experience in San Francisco.
  186. HIV seroconversion in two homosexual men after receptive oral intercourse with ejaculation: implications for counseling concerning safe sexual practices.
  187. Course of HIV-I infection in a cohort of homosexual and bisexual men: an 11 year follow up study.
  188. The role of human immunodeficiency virus infection in pneumococcal bacteremia in San Francisco residents.
  189. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in tuberculosis patients.
  190. Effect of the revised AIDS case definition on AIDS reporting in San Francisco: evidence of increased reporting in intravenous drug users.
  191. Projections of AIDS morbidity and mortality in San Francisco.
  192. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus DNA using the polymerase chain reaction in a well-characterized group of homosexual and bisexual men.
  193. Kaposi's sarcoma in a cohort of homosexual and bisexual men. Epidemiology and analysis for cofactors.
  194. Survival trends for patients with AIDS.
  195. Impact of AIDS on mortality in San Francisco, 1979-1986.
  196. Kaposi's sarcoma among homosexual and bisexual men enrolled in the San Francisco City Clinic Cohort Study.
  197. Relationship between AIDS latency period and AIDS survival time in homosexual and bisexual men.
  198. Survival following diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma for AIDS patients in San Francisco.
  199. The epidemiology of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in San Francisco.
  200. Phase I study of low-dose zidovudine and acyclovir in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus seropositive individuals.
  201. Prevalence, incidence, and progression of human immunodeficiency virus infection in homosexual and bisexual men in hepatitis B vaccine trials, 1978-1988.
  202. Neurological and neuropsychological manifestations of HIV-1 infection: association with AIDS-related complex but not asymptomatic HIV-1 infection.
  203. The epidemiology of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in San Francisco.
  204. Evaluation of AIDS prevention and control programs.
  205. Natural history of human immunodeficiency virus infection and key predictors of HIV disease progression.
  206. The epidemiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
  207. Use of hospitals by patients with AIDS in San Francisco.
  208. The epidemiology of AIDS in Asian and Pacific Islander populations in San Francisco.
  209. The natural history of human immunodeficiency virus infection.
  210. A model-based estimate of the mean incubation period for AIDS in homosexual men.
  211. Estimating AIDS infection rates in the San Francisco cohort.
  212. Guidelines for the control of human immunodeficiency virus infection in adolescents.
  213. Survival patterns of the first 500 patients with AIDS in San Francisco.
  214. Impact of the revised AIDS case definition on AIDS reporting in San Francisco.
  215. Declining prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma in homosexual AIDS patients paralleled by fall in cytomegalovirus transmission.
  216. Incidence of salmonellosis in patients with AIDS.
  217. Tuberculosis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clinical features, response to therapy, and survival.
  218. Male-to-female transmission of human immunodeficiency virus.
  219. Guidelines for the control of perinatally transmitted human immunodeficiency virus infection and care of infected mothers, infants and children.
  220. The proportion of cases of AIDS diagnosed in outpatients.
  221. A population-based study of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in Oregon, 1979-1982.
  222. Outbreak of paralytic poliomyelitis, Taiwan.