Diane Havlir, MD

Professor of Medicine

HIV, Infectious Disease, and Global Medicine, Infectious Diseases

The goal of my research is to develop therapeutic strategies to improve the lives of persons living with HIV, to reduce the global burden of HIV, and to advance public health in East Africa. Antiretroviral therapy is one of the greatest successes in medicine, yet we have not fully used it to eliminate HIV or tuberculosis (TB). My current areas of focus include 1) optimal HIV treatment approaches in the US with special attention to vulnerable populations in San Francisco, 2) optimal treatment strategies for HIV and TB, including new TB drug agents, 3) strategies to reduce the burden of HIV and malaria in children and pregnant women, and 4) testing of innovative approaches to early treatment of HIV using a community-based multi-disease approach following 320,000 persons in Uganda and Kenya to benefit the overall health, education and economics of communities in East Africa in the SEARCH study.

Fellow, 1990 - Fellowship, Infectious Diseases, Case Western Reserve University
Residency, 1987 - Internal Medicine Residency, University of California, San Francisco
M.D., 1984 - Medicine, Duke University Medical School
B.A., 1980 - Chemistry/Biology, St. Olaf College
Honors and Awards
  • Duke Distinguished Alumni Award, Duke University Medical School, 2017
  • Heroes and Hearts Award, San Francisco General Hospital Foundation, 2015
  • Thomas M Kelley Leadership Award, Project Inform, 2014
  • Chancellors Award for the Advancement of Women, University of California, San Francisco, 2014
  • Pathways Mentorship Award, University of California, San Francisco, 2014
  • Alumni Achievement Award, St. Olaf College, 2013
  • Joseph E. Smadel Infectious Diseases Society of America Award, Infectious Diseases Society of America, 2012
  • United States Co-Chair for XIX International AIDS Conference, International AIDS Conference, 2012
  • Vanity Fair Hall of Fame, “Pioneering leader in the fight against AIDS”, Vanity Fair, 2012
  • Scientific Chair for XVIII International AIDS Conference, Vienna, International AIDS Conference, 2010
  • AIDS Research Institute Award for Outstanding Mentoring, University of California, San Francisco, 2010
  • Pediatric Mentorship Award, University of California, San Francisco, 2009
  1. The impact of gravidity, symptomatology and timing of infection on placental malaria.
  2. Universal HIV Testing and Treatment (UTT) Integrated with Chronic Disease Screening and Treatment: the SEARCH study.
  3. SARS-CoV-2 PCR and antibody testing for an entire rural community: methods and feasibility of high-throughput testing procedures.
  4. A pilot randomized trial of incentive strategies to promote HIV retesting in rural Uganda.
  5. Screening for Covid-19 in Skilled Nursing Facilities. Reply.
  6. Population-level viral suppression among pregnant and postpartum women in a universal test and treat trial.
  7. Decreased Time from HIV Diagnosis to Care, ART Initiation, and Virologic Suppression during the Citywide RAPID Initiative in San Francisco.
  8. Far from MCAR: Obtaining population-level estimates of HIV viral suppression.
  9. The Impact of Control Interventions on Malaria Burden in Young Children in a Historically High-Transmission District of Uganda: A Pooled Analysis of Cohort Studies from 2007 to 2018.
  10. Improving Care Outcomes for PLWH Experiencing Homelessness and Unstable Housing: a Synthetic Review of Clinic-Based Strategies.
  11. Anemia and Micronutrient Status during Pregnancy, and Their Associations with Obstetric and Infant Outcomes among HIV-Infected Ugandan Women Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy.
  12. Asymptomatic Transmission, the Achilles' Heel of Current Strategies to Control Covid-19.
  13. The Time for Universal Masking of the Public for Coronavirus Disease 2019 Is Now.
  14. The epidemiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rural East Africa: A population-based study.
  15. Associations between alcohol use and HIV care cascade outcomes among adults undergoing population-based HIV testing in East Africa.
  16. Men's Beliefs About the Likelihood of Serodiscordance in Couples with an HIV-Positive Partner: Survey Evidence from Rural Uganda.
  17. Putting women in the centre of the global HIV response is key to achieving epidemic control!
  18. Uptake, engagement, and adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis offered after population HIV testing in rural Kenya and Uganda: 72-week interim analysis of observational data from the SEARCH study.
  19. Updated assessment of risks and benefits of dolutegravir versus efavirenz in new antiretroviral treatment initiators in sub-Saharan Africa: modelling to inform treatment guidelines.
  20. Comparison of guidelines for HIV viral load monitoring among pregnant and breastfeeding women in sub-Saharan Africa: a simulation study.
  21. What do the Universal Test and Treat trials tell us about the path to HIV epidemic control?
  22. The age-specific burden and household and school-based predictors of child and adolescent tuberculosis infection in rural Uganda.
  23. Understanding Demand for PrEP and Early Experiences of PrEP Use Among Young Adults in Rural Kenya and Uganda: A Qualitative Study.
  24. Hypertension testing and treatment in Uganda and Kenya through the SEARCH study: An implementation fidelity and outcome evaluation.
  25. The Influence of Social Networks on Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Among HIV-Infected Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive Youth in Rural Kenya and Uganda.
  26. Leveraging incentives to increase HIV testing uptake among men: qualitative insights from rural Uganda.
  27. Getting to Zero San Francisco: A Collective Impact Approach.
  28. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (Prep) Uptake among Older Individuals in Rural Western Kenya.
  29. Machine learning to identify persons at high-risk of HIV acquisition in rural Kenya and Uganda.
  30. Reaching 90-90-90 in rural communities in East Africa: lessons from the Sustainable East Africa Research in Community Health Trial.
  31. Homelessness at diagnosis is associated with death among people with HIV in a population-based study of a U.S. City.
  32. Global HIV Treatment - Turning Headwinds to Tailwinds.
  33. HIV Testing and Treatment with the Use of a Community Health Approach in Rural Africa.
  34. Intermittent preventive treatment with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and risk of malaria following cessation in young Ugandan children: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.
  35. Ending AIDS in the United States-If Not Now, When?
  36. Predictors of isoniazid preventive therapy completion among HIV-infected patients receiving differentiated and non-differentiated HIV care in rural Uganda.
  37. Gendered dimensions of population mobility associated with HIV across three epidemics in rural Eastern Africa.
  38. Safety and Impact of Low-Dose Methotrexate on Endothelial Function and Inflammation in Individuals with Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5314.
  39. Hypertension control in integrated HIV and chronic disease clinics in Uganda in the SEARCH study.
  40. Systemic inflammation is associated with malaria and preterm birth in women living with HIV on antiretrovirals and co-trimoxazole.
  41. A pilot metabolomics study of tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.
  42. A Patient-Centered Multicomponent Strategy for Accelerated Linkage to Care Following Community-Wide HIV Testing in Rural Uganda and Kenya.
  43. CROI 2019: complications and coinfections in HIV infection.
  44. Distance to clinic is a barrier to PrEP uptake and visit attendance in a community in rural Uganda.
  45. RAPID antiretroviral therapy: high virologic suppression rates with immediate antiretroviral therapy initiation in a vulnerable urban clinic population.
  46. Housing Instability Results in Increased Acute Care Utilization in an Urban HIV Clinic Cohort.
  47. Monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: a double-blind, randomised, controlled, superiority trial.
  48. Modeling prevention of malaria and selection of drug resistance with different dosing schedules of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine preventive therapy during pregnancy in Uganda.
  49. Factors predictive of successful retention in care among HIV-infected men in a universal test-and-treat setting in Uganda and Kenya: A mixed methods analysis.
  50. Financial incentives for achieving and maintaining viral suppression among HIV-positive adults in Uganda: a randomised controlled trial.
  51. Patient and provider perceptions of a comprehensive care program for HIV-positive adults over 50 years of age: The formation of the Golden Compass HIV and aging care program in San Francisco.
  52. Mobile, Population-Wide, Hybrid HIV Testing Strategy Increases Number of Children Tested in Rural Kenya and Uganda.
  53. Acquisition of tenofovir-susceptible, emtricitabine-resistant HIV despite high adherence to daily pre-exposure prophylaxis: a case report.
  54. Risks and benefits of dolutegravir-based antiretroviral drug regimens in sub-Saharan Africa: a modelling study.
  55. Early Adopters of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Preexposure Prophylaxis in a Population-based Combination Prevention Study in Rural Kenya and Uganda.
  56. Costs of streamlined HIV care delivery in rural Ugandan and Kenyan clinics in the search study.
  57. Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Pregnancy: Optimization of Target Concentrations of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine.
  58. "Hurdles on the path to 90-90-90 and beyond": Qualitative analysis of barriers to engagement in HIV care among individuals in rural East Africa in the context of test-and-treat.
  59. Advancing global health and strengthening the HIV response in the era of the Sustainable Development Goals: the International AIDS Society-Lancet Commission.
  60. Comparative effectiveness of novel non-monetary incentives to promote HIV testing: a randomized trial.
  61. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy and risk of malaria in early childhood: A randomized controlled trial.
  62. High CD4 counts associated with better economic outcomes for HIV-positive adults and their HIV-negative household members in the SEARCH Trial.
  63. Effect of a Patient-Centered Phone Call by a Clinical Officer at Time of HIV Testing on Linkage to Care in Rural Kenya.
  64. CROI 2018: Complications of HIV Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy.
  65. Biomarkers Associated with Death After Initiating Treatment for Tuberculosis and HIV in Patients with Very Low CD4 Cells.
  66. Trends in the San Francisco Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic in the "Getting to Zero" Era.
  67. Degree of Housing Instability Shows Independent "Dose-Response" With Virologic Suppression Rates Among People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
  68. Predicting Optimal Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Regimens to Prevent Malaria During Pregnancy for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women Receiving Efavirenz.
  69. Spatial overlap links seemingly unconnected genotype-matched TB cases in rural Uganda.
  70. Comparative assessment of five trials of universal HIV testing and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa.
  71. Protective effect of indoor residual spraying of insecticide on preterm birth among pregnant women with HIV in Uganda: A secondary data analysis.
  72. Isoniazid Preventive Therapy Completion in the Era of Differentiated HIV Care.
  73. Gaps in the Child Tuberculosis Care Cascade in 32 Rural Communities in Uganda and Kenya.
  74. Redemption of the "spoiled identity:" the role of HIV-positive individuals in HIV care cascade interventions.
  75. Understanding uptake of an intervention to accelerate antiretroviral therapy initiation in Uganda via qualitative inquiry.
  76. Cost-effectiveness of public-health policy options in the presence of pretreatment NNRTI drug resistance in sub-Saharan Africa: a modelling study.
  77. Impact of Intermittent Preventive Treatment During Pregnancy on Plasmodium falciparum Drug Resistance-Mediating Polymorphisms in Uganda.
  78. Altered angiogenesis as a common mechanism underlying preterm birth, small for gestational age, and stillbirth in women living with HIV.
  79. Relationships between infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy, measures of placental malaria, and adverse birth outcomes.
  80. Predictors of Retention in HIV Care Among Youth (15-24) in a Universal Test-and-Treat Setting in Rural Kenya.
  81. The science of rapid start-From the when to the how of antiretroviral initiation.
  82. High rates of viral suppression in adults and children with high CD4+ counts using a streamlined ART delivery model in the SEARCH trial in rural Uganda and Kenya.
  83. Intermittent Preventive Treatment With Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for the Prevention of Malaria Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women.
  84. Association of Implementation of a Universal Testing and Treatment Intervention With HIV Diagnosis, Receipt of Antiretroviral Therapy, and Viral Suppression in East Africa.
  85. Antiretroviral Therapy With Efavirenz Accentuates Pregnancy-Associated Reduction of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Exposure During Malaria Chemoprevention.
  86. CROI 2017: Complications and Comorbidities of HIV Disease and Its Treatment.
  87. Viral Suppression and Retention in Care up to 5 Years After Initiation of Lifelong ART During Pregnancy (Option B+) in Rural Uganda.
  88. Sex Disparity in Cord Blood FoxP3+ CD4 T Regulatory Cells in Infants Exposed to Malaria In Utero.
  89. The Effect of Same-Day Observed Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy on HIV Viral Load and Treatment Outcomes in a US Public Health Setting.
  90. Population levels and geographical distribution of HIV RNA in rural Ugandan and Kenyan communities, including serodiscordant couples: a cross-sectional analysis.
  91. Growth Recovery Among HIV-infected Children Randomized to Lopinavir/Ritonavir or NNRTI-based Antiretroviral Therapy.
  92. High levels of retention in care with streamlined care and universal test and treat in East Africa.
  93. Implementation and Operational Research: Cost and Efficiency of a Hybrid Mobile Multidisease Testing Approach With High HIV Testing Coverage in East Africa.
  94. Implementation and Operational Research: Population-Based Active Tuberculosis Case Finding During Large-Scale Mobile HIV Testing Campaigns in Rural Uganda.
  95. Malaria burden in a birth cohort of HIV-exposed uninfected Ugandan infants living in a high malaria transmission setting.
  96. Timing of in utero malaria exposure influences fetal CD4 T cell regulatory versus effector differentiation.
  97. Increased adolescent HIV testing with a hybrid mobile strategy in Uganda and Kenya.
  98. Effects of a multicomponent intervention to streamline initiation of antiretroviral therapy in Africa: a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial.
  99. Reductions in malaria in pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes following indoor residual spraying of insecticide in Uganda.
  100. Antiretroviral Therapy for the Prevention of HIV-1 Transmission.
  101. Tuberculosis Therapy Modifies the Cytokine Profile, Maturation State, and Expression of Inhibitory Molecules on Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific CD4+ T-Cells.
  102. Stimulating the RIG-I pathway to kill cells in the latent HIV reservoir following viral reactivation.
  103. Population-Based Assessment of Hypertension Epidemiology and Risk Factors among HIV-Positive and General Populations in Rural Uganda.
  104. CROI 2016: Complications of HIV Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy.
  105. Tuberculosis Infection in Early Childhood and the Association with HIV-exposure in HIV-uninfected Children in Rural Uganda.
  106. Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for the Prevention of Malaria in Pregnancy.
  107. Brief Report: Food Insufficiency Is Associated With Lack of Sustained Viral Suppression Among HIV-Infected Pregnant and Breastfeeding Ugandan Women.
  108. Community-wide Prevalence of Malaria Parasitemia in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Populations in a High-Transmission Setting in Uganda.
  109. Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF Versus AFB Smear and Culture to Identify Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Patients With Suspected Tuberculosis From Low and Higher Prevalence Settings.
  110. A hybrid mobile approach for population-wide HIV testing in rural east Africa: an observational study.
  111. "How can I tell?" Consequences of HIV status disclosure among couples in eastern African communities in the context of an ongoing HIV "test-and-treat" trial.
  112. Expectations about future health and longevity in Kenyan and Ugandan communities receiving a universal test-and-treat intervention in the SEARCH trial.
  113. Men "missing" from population-based HIV testing: insights from qualitative research.
  114. Estimated Costs for Delivery of HIV Antiretroviral Therapy to Individuals with CD4+ T-Cell Counts >350 cells/uL in Rural Uganda.
  115. "I Have Remained Strong Because of That Food": Acceptability and Use of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Among Pregnant HIV-Infected Ugandan Women Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy.
  116. Implementation challenges for long-acting antivirals as treatment.
  117. Hair concentrations of antiretrovirals predict viral suppression in HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding Ugandan women.
  118. Site-specific differences in T cell frequencies and phenotypes in the blood and gut of HIV-uninfected and ART-treated HIV+ adults.
  119. Impact of antimalarial treatment and chemoprevention on the drug sensitivity of malaria parasites isolated from ugandan children.
  120. CROI 2015: Complications of HIV Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy.
  121. The effect of malnutrition on the pharmacokinetics and virologic outcomes of lopinavir, efavirenz and nevirapine in food insecure HIV-infected children in Tororo, Uganda.
  122. Combined effect of CYP2B6 and NAT2 genotype on plasma efavirenz exposure during rifampin-based antituberculosis therapy in the STRIDE study.
  123. Identifying locations of recent TB transmission in rural Uganda: a multidisciplinary approach.
  124. Efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir versus efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected pregnant Ugandan women.
  125. Efficacy and safety of three regimens for the prevention of malaria in young HIV-exposed Ugandan children: a randomized controlled trial.
  126. Household food insecurity, maternal nutritional status, and infant feeding practices among HIV-infected Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy.
  127. Risk factors for preterm birth among HIV-infected pregnant Ugandan women randomized to lopinavir/ritonavir- or efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy.
  128. Successful antiretroviral therapy delivery and retention in care among asymptomatic individuals with high CD4+ T-cell counts above 350 cells/µl in rural Uganda.
  129. Assessing the quality of tuberculosis evaluation for children with prolonged cough presenting to routine community health care settings in rural Uganda.
  130. Increased morbidity in early childhood among HIV-exposed uninfected children in Uganda is associated with breastfeeding duration.
  131. Polymorphisms in K13 and falcipain-2 associated with artemisinin resistance are not prevalent in Plasmodium falciparum isolated from Ugandan children.
  132. Protective efficacy and safety of three antimalarial regimens for the prevention of malaria in young Ugandan children: a randomized controlled trial.
  133. Lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral treatment (ART) versus efavirenz-based ART for the prevention of malaria among HIV-infected pregnant women.
  134. CROI 2014: Viral hepatitis and complications of HIV disease and antiretroviral therapy.
  135. Artemisinin-based combination therapies are efficacious and safe for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in HIV-infected Ugandan children.
  136. Virologic and immunologic outcomes of HIV-infected Ugandan children randomized to lopinavir/ritonavir or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy.
  137. Tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in A5221 STRIDE: timing, severity, and implications for HIV-TB programs.
  138. Effects of early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment on clinical outcomes of HIV-1 infection: results from the phase 3 HPTN 052 randomised controlled trial.
  139. Changes in population HIV RNA levels in Mbarara, Uganda, during scale-up of HIV antiretroviral therapy access.
  140. Evaluating linkage to care for hypertension after community-based screening in rural Uganda.
  141. A comparison of methods for measuring rectal HIV levels suggests that HIV DNA resides in cells other than CD4+ T cells, including myeloid cells.
  142. Effect of left ventricular dysfunction and viral load on risk of sudden cardiac death in patients with human immunodeficiency virus.
  143. Evaluation of two line probe assays for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance, and non-TB Mycobacteria in HIV-infected individuals with suspected TB.
  144. Uptake of community-based HIV testing during a multi-disease health campaign in rural Uganda.
  145. Epidemiology and awareness of hypertension in a rural Ugandan community: a cross-sectional study.
  146. The end of AIDS: HIV infection as a chronic disease.
  147. Changes in the timing of antiretroviral therapy initiation in HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis in Uganda: a study of the diffusion of evidence into practice in the global response to HIV/AIDS.
  148. Pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir and efavirenz in food insecure HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women in Tororo, Uganda.
  149. Hair and plasma data show that lopinavir, ritonavir, and efavirenz all transfer from mother to infant in utero, but only efavirenz transfers via breastfeeding.
  150. Acceptability and feasibility of serial HIV antibody testing during pregnancy/postpartum and male partner testing in Tororo, Uganda.
  151. High retention in care among HIV-infected patients entering care with CD4 levels >350 cells/µL under routine program conditions in Uganda.
  152. Overcoming the human immunodeficiency virus obstacle course.
  153. The distribution of HIV DNA and RNA in cell subsets differs in gut and blood of HIV-positive patients on ART: implications for viral persistence.
  154. Neonatal mortality in HIV-exposed infants born to women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in Rural Uganda.
  155. Household ventilation and tuberculosis transmission in Kampala, Uganda.
  156. Examining the evidence on the causal effect of HAART on transmission of HIV using the Bradford Hill criteria.
  157. Relationship between weight, efavirenz exposure, and virologic suppression in HIV-infected patients on rifampin-based tuberculosis treatment in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5221 STRIDE Study.
  158. CROI 2013: Complications of HIV disease, viral hepatitis, and antiretroviral therapy.
  159. WHO option B+: early experience of antiretroviral therapy sequencing after cessation of breastfeeding and risk of dermatologic toxicity.
  160. Improved employment and education outcomes in households of HIV-infected adults with high CD4 cell counts: evidence from a community health campaign in Uganda.
  161. Prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia and gametocytemia among HIV-infected Ugandan children randomized to receive different antiretroviral therapies.
  162. Assessment of population-based HIV RNA levels in a rural east African setting using a fingerprick-based blood collection method.
  163. Antiretroviral agents and prevention of malaria in HIV-infected Ugandan children.
  164. PR Interval and sudden cardiac death in patients with HIV infection.
  165. Reducing deaths from tuberculosis in antiretroviral treatment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa.
  166. Concomitant efavirenz reduces pharmacokinetic exposure to the antimalarial drug artemether-lumefantrine in healthy volunteers.
  167. The effect of a "universal antiretroviral therapy" recommendation on HIV RNA levels among HIV-infected patients entering care with a CD4 count greater than 500/µL in a public health setting.
  168. Leveraging rapid community-based HIV testing campaigns for non-communicable diseases in rural Uganda.
  169. Maternal nutritional status predicts adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected rural Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy.
  170. The beginning of the end of AIDS?
  171. Complications of HIV disease and antiretroviral therapy.
  172. Sudden cardiac death in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.
  173. Update on World Health Organization HIV drug resistance prevention and assessment strategy: 2004-2011.
  174. Social, structural and behavioral determinants of overall health status in a cohort of homeless and unstably housed HIV-infected men.
  175. Neurocognitive and motor deficits in HIV-infected Ugandan children with high CD4 cell counts.
  176. HIV and tuberculosis--science and implementation to turn the tide and reduce deaths.
  177. The effect of HIV on malaria in the context of the current standard of care for HIV-infected populations in Africa.
  178. Initial viral decay to assess the relative antiretroviral potency of protease inhibitor-sparing, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing, and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing regimens for first-line therapy of HIV infection
  179. Resistance patterns and response to entecavir intensification among HIV-HBV-coinfected adults with persistent HBV viremia.
  180. Timing of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection and tuberculosis.
  181. The effect of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 5164 on the time from Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnosis to antiretroviral initiation in routine clinical practice: a case study of diffusion, dissemination, and implementation.
  182. Virologic suppression in nevirapine-exposed HIV-infected infants initiating antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda.
  183. A randomized trial of punctuated antiretroviral therapy in Ugandan HIV-seropositive adults with pulmonary tuberculosis and CD4? T-cell counts of = 350 cells/µL.
  184. Tuberculosis drug development: ensuring people living with HIV are not left behind.
  185. Sex differences in HIV RNA level and CD4 cell percentage during childhood.
  186. Mortality among antiretroviral-eligible patients in an urban public clinic.
  187. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy.
  188. Complications of HIV disease and antiretroviral therapy.
  189. Modification of the Abbott RealTime assay for detection of HIV-1 plasma RNA viral loads less than one copy per milliliter.
  190. The effect of expanded antiretroviral treatment strategies on the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in San Francisco.
  191. Effects of antiretroviral therapy on immune function of HIV-infected adults with pulmonary tuberculosis and CD4+ >350 cells/mm3.
  192. Early virologic failure and the development of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in HIV-infected Ugandan children.
  193. Short-term risk of HIV disease progression and death in Ugandan children not eligible for antiretroviral therapy.
  194. Effect of raltegravir-containing intensification on HIV burden and T-cell activation in multiple gut sites of HIV-positive adults on suppressive antiretroviral therapy.
  195. Differences in HIV burden and immune activation within the gut of HIV-positive patients receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy.
  196. Significant variation in presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis across a high resolution of CD4 strata.
  197. Novel application of Locked Nucleic Acid chemistry for a Taqman assay for measuring diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes.
  198. AIDS clinical trials group 5197: a placebo-controlled trial of immunization of HIV-1-infected persons with a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5 vaccine expressing the HIV-1 core protein.
  199. "A bird in the hand...": a commentary on the test and treat approach for HIV.
  200. Mycobacterium tuberculosis microbiologic and clinical treatment outcomes in a randomized trial of immediate versus CD4(+)-initiated antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adults with a high CD4(+) cell count.
  201. Acute HIV-1 infection is highly prevalent in Ugandan adults with suspected malaria.
  202. Effect of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole on the risk of malaria in HIV-infected Ugandan children living in an area of widespread antifolate resistance.
  203. HIV-subtype A is associated with poorer neuropsychological performance compared with subtype D in antiretroviral therapy-naive Ugandan children.
  204. Tuberculosis as part of the natural history of HIV infection in developing countries.
  205. Complications of HIV disease and antiretroviral treatment.
  206. Neurocognitive effects of treatment interruption in stable HIV-positive patients in an observational cohort.
  207. Tuberculosis treatment in HIV infected Ugandans with CD4 counts>350 cells/mm reduces immune activation with no effect on HIV load or CD4 count.
  208. Placental malaria among HIV-infected and uninfected women receiving anti-folates in a high transmission area of Uganda.
  209. Lopinavir/ritonavir affects pharmacokinetic exposure of artemether/lumefantrine in HIV-uninfected healthy volunteers.
  210. Metabolic outcomes in a randomized trial of nucleoside, nonnucleoside and protease inhibitor-sparing regimens for initial HIV treatment.
  211. Complications of HIV disease and antiretroviral therapy.
  212. Paradigm shift to address drug resistant tuberculosis in people living with HIV needed, and needed now.
  213. Dynamics of T cell activation accompanying CD4 recovery in antiretroviral treated HIV-infected Ugandan children.
  214. Polymerase chain reaction of secA1 on sputum or oral wash samples for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
  215. Latently-infected CD4+ T cells are enriched for HIV-1 Tat variants with impaired transactivation activity.
  216. The Distribution and Immune Profile of T Cell Subsets in HIV-Infected Children from Uganda.
  217. Management of HIV-infected patients with MDR- and XDR-TB in resource-limited settings.
  218. Unexpected low-level viremia among HIV-infected Ugandan adults with untreated active tuberculosis.
  219. Confronting TB/HIV in the era of increasing anti-TB drug resistance.
  220. Detection of nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 after discontinuation of virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy.
  221. HIV integrase inhibitors--out of the pipeline and into the clinic.
  222. Opportunities and challenges for HIV care in overlapping HIV and TB epidemics.
  223. HIV RNA suppression among HIV-infected Ugandan children with measles.
  224. Class-sparing regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection.
  225. High risk of neutropenia in HIV-infected children following treatment with artesunate plus amodiaquine for uncomplicated malaria in Uganda.
  226. Highlights of the 15th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Complications of HIV disease and therapy.
  227. Dynamics of total, linear nonintegrated, and integrated HIV-1 DNA in vivo and in vitro.
  228. HIV-1 infection in patients referred for malaria blood smears at government health clinics in Uganda.
  229. Low rates of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected patients with chronic kidney disease.
  230. Profile of T cell immune responses in HIV-infected children from Uganda.
  231. Effects of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and insecticide-treated bednets on malaria among HIV-infected Ugandan children.
  232. Early virological response of zidovudine/lamivudine/abacavir for patients co-infected with HIV and tuberculosis in Uganda.
  233. Treatment strategies for HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis: ongoing and planned clinical trials.
  234. High-dose lopinavir/ritonavir in highly treatment-experienced HIV-1 patients: efficacy, safety, and predictors of response.
  235. Interruption of antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected patients with preserved immune function is associated with a low rate of clinical progression: a prospective study by AIDS Clinical Trials Group 5170.
  236. Complications of HIV disease and therapy.
  237. Hepatotoxicity due to a drug interaction between amodiaquine plus artesunate and efavirenz.
  238. Elevated HIV seroprevalence and risk behavior among Ugandan TB suspects: implications for HIV testing and prevention.
  239. Comparison of an interferon-gamma release assay with tuberculin skin testing in HIV-infected individuals.
  240. A randomized trial of treatment interruption before optimized antiretroviral therapy for persons with drug-resistant HIV: 48-week virologic results of ACTG A5086.
  241. False-positive results of enzyme immunoassays for human immunodeficiency virus in patients with uncomplicated malaria.
  242. Intensive care of patients with HIV infection.
  243. Antiretroviral therapy and TB.
  244. Complications of HIV disease and antiretroviral therapy.
  245. Clinical presentation and course of acute hepatitis C infection in HIV-infected patients.
  246. Effect of HIV-1 infection on antimalarial treatment outcomes in Uganda: a population-based study.
  247. Patents versus patients? Antiretroviral therapy in India.
  248. Antimalarial activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitors.
  249. Effect of treatment, during primary infection, on establishment and clearance of cellular reservoirs of HIV-1.
  250. Complications of HIV disease and antiretroviral therapy.
  251. Predictors of residual viremia in HIV-infected patients successfully treated with efavirenz and lamivudine plus either tenofovir or stavudine.
  252. Rapid increase in tuberculosis incidence soon after infection with HIV--a new twist in the twin epidemics.
  253. The case for earlier treatment of HIV infection.
  254. Atazanavir: new option for treatment of HIV infection.
  255. Complications of HIV disease and antiretroviral therapy. Highlights of the 11th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, February 8-11, 2004, San Francisco, California, USA.
  256. Six-year follow-up of HIV-1-infected adults in a clinical trial of antiretroviral therapy with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine.
  257. Productive infection maintains a dynamic steady state of residual viremia in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected persons treated with suppressive antiretroviral therapy for five years.
  258. Strategic approaches to antiretroviral treatment.
  259. Responding to organ failure in HIV-infected patients.
  260. Complications of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy.
  261. Heterogeneous clearance rates of long-lived lymphocytes infected with HIV: intrinsic stability predicts lifelong persistence.
  262. Coadministration of indinavir and nelfinavir in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected adults: safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiretroviral activity.
  263. Virtual inhibitory quotient predicts response to ritonavir boosting of indinavir-based therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with ongoing viremia.
  264. Baseline predictors of CD4 T-lymphocyte recovery with combination antiretroviral therapy.
  265. Nontuberculous mycobacteria in the HIV infected patient.
  266. The Global HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance Program: a partnership between WHO and IAS. International AIDS Society.
  267. A phase II randomized study of the virologic and immunologic effect of zidovudine + stavudine versus stavudine alone and zidovudine + lamivudine in patients with >300 CD4 cells who were antiretroviral naive (ACTG 298).
  268. Memory CD8+ T cells vary in differentiation phenotype in different persistent virus infections.
  269. To stop or not to stop: that is the question, but what is the answer?
  270. Persistent HIV-1-specific cellular responses despite prolonged therapeutic viral suppression.
  271. Structured intermittent treatment for HIV disease: Necessary concession or premature compromise?
  272. Vaccine-induced immune responses in rodents and nonhuman primates by use of a humanized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pol gene.
  273. Adding two new drug classes improves outcome in salvage therapy.
  274. Effects of treatment intensification with hydroxyurea in HIV-infected patients with virologic suppression.
  275. Prevalence and predictive value of intermittent viremia with combination hiv therapy.
  276. Evidence for positive selection driving the evolution of HIV-1 env under potent antiviral therapy.
  277. Patterns of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA response to antiretroviral therapy.
  278. Residual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Type 1 RNA and DNA in lymph nodes and HIV RNA in genital secretions and in cerebrospinal fluid after suppression of viremia for 2 years.
  279. Productive infection of T cells in lymphoid tissues during primary and early human immunodeficiency virus infection.
  280. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, soluble type II TNF receptor, and transforming growth factor beta levels in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals with Mycobacterium avium complex disease.
  281. Plasma population pharmacokinetics and penetration into cerebrospinal fluid of indinavir in combination with zidovudine and lamivudine in HIV-1-infected patients.
  282. Effect of potent antiretroviral therapy on immune responses to Mycobacterium avium in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects.
  283. Dynamics of HIV-1 viral load rebound among patients with previous suppression of viral replication.
  284. In vivo antagonism with zidovudine plus stavudine combination therapy.
  285. 3-year suppression of HIV viremia with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine.
  286. HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells produce antiviral cytokines but are impaired in cytolytic function.
  287. Effect of chemokine receptor gene polymorphisms on the response to potent antiretroviral therapy.
  288. Effect of influenza vaccination on viral replication and immune response in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus receiving potent antiretroviral therapy.
  289. Drug susceptibility in HIV infection after viral rebound in patients receiving indinavir-containing regimens.
  290. Rapid accumulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in lymphatic tissue reservoirs during acute and early HIV infection: implications for timing of antiretroviral therapy.
  291. Sexual transmission and propagation of SIV and HIV in resting and activated CD4+ T cells.
  292. Evolution of envelope sequences of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in cellular reservoirs in the setting of potent antiviral therapy.
  293. Viral dynamics of acute HIV-1 infection.
  294. Efficacy of azithromycin in prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: a randomised trial. California Collaborative Treatment Group.
  295. Rapid screening of phenotypic resistance to nevirapine by direct analysis of HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase activity in plasma.
  296. Reversibility of the pathological changes in the follicular dendritic cell network with treatment of HIV-1 infection.
  297. Tuberculosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.
  298. Successful short-term suppression of clarithromycin-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS. California Collaborative Treatment Group.
  299. Prophylaxis with weekly versus daily fluconazole for fungal infections in patients with AIDS.
  300. Maintenance antiretroviral therapies in HIV-infected subjects with undetectable plasma HIV RNA after triple-drug therapy. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 343 Team.
  301. Aberrant and unstable expression of immunoglobulin genes in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
  302. Comparative performance of high-density oligonucleotide sequencing and dideoxynucleotide sequencing of HIV type 1 pol from clinical samples.
  303. Simultaneous vs sequential initiation of therapy with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine for HIV-1 infection: 100-week follow-up.
  304. Human immunodeficiency virus replication and genotypic resistance in blood and lymph nodes after a year of potent antiretroviral therapy.
  305. Human immunodeficiency virus replication in AIDS patients with Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia: a case control study. California Collaborative Treatment Group.
  306. New antiretrovirals and new combinations.
  307. Recovery of replication-competent HIV despite prolonged suppression of plasma viremia.
  308. Reduction of HIV-1 in blood and lymph nodes following potent antiretroviral therapy and the virologic correlates of treatment failure.
  309. A randomized evaluation of ethambutol for prevention of relapse and drug resistance during treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia with clarithromycin-based combination therapy. California Collaborative Treatment Group.
  310. Treatment with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection and prior antiretroviral therapy.
  311. In vivo compartmentalization of human immunodeficiency virus: evidence from the examination of pol sequences from autopsy tissues.
  312. The role of viral dynamics in the pathogenesis of HIV disease and implications for antiviral therapy.
  313. Nevirapine-resistant human immunodeficiency virus: kinetics of replication and estimated prevalence in untreated patients.
  314. Prophylaxis against disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex with weekly azithromycin, daily rifabutin, or both. California Collaborative Treatment Group.
  315. Oral ganciclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in persons with AIDS. Roche Cooperative Oral Ganciclovir Study Group.
  316. Viral dynamics of HIV: implications for drug development and therapeutic strategies.
  317. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex: correlation between blood and tissue burden.
  318. Kinetic analysis of intravirion reverse transcription in the blood plasma of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals: direct assessment of resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors in vivo.
  319. Newer nucleosides: lamivudine and stavudine.
  320. A pilot study to evaluate the development of resistance to nevirapine in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with CD4 cell counts of > 500/mm3: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 208.
  321. High-dose nevirapine: safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral effect in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.
  322. Phase I/II evaluation of nevirapine alone and in combination with zidovudine for infection with human immunodeficiency virus.
  323. Early versus delayed treatment of HIV infection. Zidovudine should be given before symptoms develop.
  324. Autopsy findings in AIDS patients with Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia.
  325. Mycobacterium avium complex: advances in therapy.
  326. Uveitis associated with rifabutin prophylaxis.
  327. Transient bacteremia due to Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with AIDS.
  328. The individual microbiologic effect of three antimycobacterial agents, clofazimine, ethambutol, and rifampin, on Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in patients with AIDS.
  329. Nevirapine resistance mutations of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 selected during therapy.
  330. Reproducibility of lysis-centrifugation cultures for quantification of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia.
  331. Cryptosporidium infection and CD4 counts.
  332. A 19-year follow-up of tuberculin reactors. Assessment of skin test reactivity and in vitro lymphocyte responses.
  333. Human immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens.
  334. Selective expansion of human gamma delta T cells by monocytes infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  335. Identification of antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using human monoclonal antibodies.
  336. Do not resuscitate discussions in a hospital-based home care program.
  337. Biochemical and clinical aspects of amyloidosis.
  338. A 32-year-old man with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and pneumococcal meningitis.
  339. Nutritional status of the elderly in Palmares, Costa Rica.
  340. Typhoid fever.