Courtney Lyles, PhD

Assoc Professor

Center for Vulnerable Populations, General Internal Medicine UCSF Health, General Internal Medicine ZSFG

Courtney Lyles, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the UCSF Division of General Internal Medicine at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, the UCSF Center for Vulnerable Populations, and the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics. A trained health services researcher, she uses quantitative and qualitative methods to examine quality of care, health behavior, and health outcomes. She is also an Associate Director of the UCSF program Implementation Science program based in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics. Finally, she holds an affiliate investigator appointment at the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research.

Her research specifically focuses on harnessing health information technology to improve patient-provider communication for chronic disease self-management to ultimately reduce disparities in health and healthcare outcomes for low-income and racial/ethnic minority populations. She currently is co-PI of an R01 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to use machine learning to send personalized text messages to patients motivate physical activity, including leveraging user-centered design and implementation science principles.

Publications
  1. Brown W, Balyan R, Karter AJ, Crossley S, Semere W, Duran ND, Lyles C, Liu J, Moffet HH, Daniels R, McNamara DS, Schillinger D. Challenges and Solutions to Employing Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning to Measure Patients' Health Literacy and Physician Writing Complexity: The ECLIPPSE Study. 2020. PMID: 33316421


  2. Nouri S, Lyles CR, Rubinsky AD, Patel K, Desai R, Fields J, DeRouen MC, Volow A, Bibbins-Domingo K, Sudore RL. Evaluation of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Characteristics and Advance Care Planning Among Older Adults. 2020. PMID: 33301019


  3. Khoong EC, Fontil V, Rivadeneira NA, Hoskote M, Nundy S, Lyles CR, Sarkar U. Impact of digitally acquired peer diagnostic input on diagnostic confidence in outpatient cases: A pragmatic randomized trial. 2020. PMID: 33260212


  4. Cemballi AG, Karter AJ, Schillinger D, Liu JY, McNamara DS, Brown W, Crossley S, Semere W, Reed M, Allen J, Lyles CR. Descriptive examination of secure messaging in a longitudinal cohort of diabetes patients in the ECLIPPSE study. 2020. PMID: 33236117


  5. Lyles CR, Sarkar U, Patel U, Lisker S, Stark A, Guzman V, Patel A. Real-world insights from launching remote peer-to-peer mentoring in a safety net healthcare delivery setting. 2020. PMID: 33180917


  6. Khoong EC, Butler BA, Mesina O, Su G, DeFries TB, Nijagal M, Lyles CR. Patient interest in and barriers to telemedicine video visits in a multilingual urban safety-net system. 2020. PMID: 33164063


  7. Aguilera A, Figueroa CA, Hernandez-Ramos R, Sarkar U, Cemballi A, Gomez-Pathak L, Miramontes J, Yom-Tov E, Chakraborty B, Yan X, Xu J, Modiri A, Aggarwal J, Jay Williams J, Lyles CR. mHealth app using machine learning to increase physical activity in diabetes and depression: clinical trial protocol for the DIAMANTE Study. 2020. PMID: 32819981


  8. Casillas A, Cemballi AG, Abhat A, Lemberg M, Portz JD, Sadasivaiah S, Ratanawongsa N, Semere W, Brown A, Lyles CR. An Untapped Potential in Primary Care: Semi-Structured Interviews with Clinicians on How Patient Portals Will Work for Caregivers in the Safety Net. 2020. PMID: 32706709


  9. Lyles CR, Nelson EC, Frampton S, Dykes PC, Cemballi AG, Sarkar U. Using Electronic Health Record Portals to Improve Patient Engagement: Research Priorities and Best Practices. 2020. PMID: 32479176


  10. Nouri SS, Adler-Milstein J, Thao C, Acharya P, Barr-Walker J, Sarkar U, Lyles C. Patient characteristics associated with objective measures of digital health tool use in the United States: A literature review. 2020. PMID: 32364238


  11. Fields J, Cemballi AG, Michalec C, Uchida D, Griffiths K, Cardes H, Cuellar J, Chodos AH, Lyles CR. In-Home Technology Training Among Socially Isolated Older Adults: Findings From the Tech Allies Program. 2020. PMID: 32141373


  12. Rodriguez JA, Lipsitz SR, Lyles CR, Samal L. Association Between Patient Portal Use and Broadband Access: a National Evaluation. 2020. PMID: 31925739


  13. Mayberry LS, Lyles CR, Oldenburg B, Osborn CY, Parks M, Peek ME. mHealth Interventions for Disadvantaged and Vulnerable People with Type 2 Diabetes. 2019. PMID: 31768662


  14. Lin SC, Lyles CR, Sarkar U, Adler-Milstein J. Are Patients Electronically Accessing Their Medical Records? Evidence From National Hospital Data. 2019. PMID: 31682494


  15. Avila-Garcia P, Hernandez-Ramos R, Nouri SS, Cemballi A, Sarkar U, Lyles CR, Aguilera A. Engaging users in the design of an mHealth, text message-based intervention to increase physical activity at a safety-net health care system. 2019. PMID: 32025646


  16. Nouri SS, Avila-Garcia P, Cemballi AG, Sarkar U, Aguilera A, Lyles CR. Assessing Mobile Phone Digital Literacy and Engagement in User-Centered Design in a Diverse, Safety-Net Population: Mixed Methods Study. 2019. PMID: 31469083


  17. Semere W, Crossley S, Karter AJ, Lyles CR, Brown W, Reed M, McNamara DS, Liu JY, Schillinger D. Secure Messaging with Physicians by Proxies for Patients with Diabetes: Findings from the ECLIPPSE Study. 2019. PMID: 31428986


  18. Lyson HC, Le GM, Zhang J, Rivadeneira N, Lyles C, Radcliffe K, Pasick RJ, Sawaya G, Sarkar U, Centola D. Social Media as a Tool to Promote Health Awareness: Results from an Online Cervical Cancer Prevention Study. 2018. PMID: 29948924


  19. Khoong EC, Cherian R, Matta GY, Lyles CR, Schillinger D, Ratanawongsa N. Perspectives of English, Chinese, and Spanish-Speaking Safety-Net Patients on Clinician Computer Use: Qualitative Analysis. 2019. PMID: 31120020


  20. Ruvalcaba D, Nagao Peck H, Lyles C, Uratsu CS, Escobar PR, Grant RW. Translating/Creating a Culturally Responsive Spanish-Language Mobile App for Visit Preparation: Case Study of "Trans-Creation". 2019. PMID: 30950803


  21. Sadasivaiah S, Lyles CR, Kiyoi S, Wong P, Ratanawongsa N. Disparities in Patient-Reported Interest in Web-Based Patient Portals: Survey at an Urban Academic Safety-Net Hospital. 2019. PMID: 30912747


  22. Mary E Lacy, Courtney R Lyles, Mahasin S Mujahid, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Mark J Pletcher. Abstract P084: Neighborhood Deprivation is Associated With Diabetes Complications: Results From the UCSF Population Health Data Initiative. 2019. PMID:


  23. Lyles CR, Tieu L, Sarkar U, Kiyoi S, Sadasivaiah S, Hoskote M, Ratanawongsa N, Schillinger D. A Randomized Trial to Train Vulnerable Primary Care Patients to Use a Patient Portal. 2019. PMID: 30850461


  24. Grant RW, Lyles C, Uratsu CS, Vo MT, Bayliss EA, Heisler M. Visit Planning Using a Waiting Room Health IT Tool: The Aligning Patients and Providers Randomized Controlled Trial. 2019. PMID: 30858257


  25. Balyan R, Crossley SA, Brown W, Karter AJ, McNamara DS, Liu JY, Lyles CR, Schillinger D. Using natural language processing and machine learning to classify health literacy from secure messages: The ECLIPPSE study. 2019. PMID: 30794616


  26. Le GM, Radcliffe K, Lyles C, Lyson HC, Wallace B, Sawaya G, Pasick R, Centola D, Sarkar U. Perceptions of cervical cancer prevention on Twitter uncovered by different sampling strategies. 2019. PMID: 30742683


  27. Fontil V, Radcliffe K, Lyson HC, Ratanawongsa N, Lyles C, Tuot D, Yuen K, Sarkar U. Testing and improving the acceptability of a web-based platform for collective intelligence to improve diagnostic accuracy in primary care clinics. 2019. PMID: 31984344


  28. Stephen Kiyoi, Courtney Lyles, Shobha Sadasivaiah. Chapter 3 Collaborating to Connect the Underserved With Patient Portals. 2019. PMID:


  29. Lyson HC, Ackerman S, Lyles C, Schillinger D, Williams P, Gourley G, Gupta R, Handley M, Sarkar U. Redesigning primary care in the safety net: A qualitative analysis of team-based care implementation. 2018. PMID: 30552044


  30. Valy Fontil, Elaine Khoong, Mekhala Hoskote, Kate Radcliffe, Neda Ratanawongsa, Courtney Rees Lyles, Urmimala Sarkar. Evaluation of an health-IT-enabled collective intelligence platform to improve diagnosis in primary care and urgent care settings: Study Design (Preprint). 2018. PMID:


  31. King F, Klonoff DC, Kerr D, Hu J, Lyles C, Quinn C, Adi S, Chen K, Hood K, Salber P, de Clercq C, Hu J, Gabbay R. Digital Diabetes Congress 2018. 2018. PMID: 30376739


  32. Lyles CR, Handley MA, Ackerman SL, Schillinger D, Williams P, Westbrook M, Gourley G, Sarkar U. Innovative Implementation Studies Conducted in US Safety Net Health Care Settings: A Systematic Review. 2018. PMID: 30198304


  33. Lyles CR, Lunn MR, Obedin-Maliver J, Bibbins-Domingo K. The new era of precision population health: insights for the All of Us Research Program and beyond. 2018. PMID: 30053823


  34. Fontil V, Lyles CR, Schillinger D, Handley MA, Ackerman S, Gourley G, Bibbins-Domingo K, Sarkar U. Safety-net institutions in the US grapple with new cholesterol treatment guidelines: a qualitative analysis from the PHoENIX Network. 2018. PMID: 30034258


  35. Sarkar U, Le GM, Lyles CR, Ramo D, Linos E, Bibbins-Domingo K. Using Social Media to Target Cancer Prevention in Young Adults: Viewpoint. Volume 20 of Issue 6. 2018. PMID: 29871850


  36. Handley MA, Lyles CR, McCulloch C, Cattamanchi A. Selecting and Improving Quasi-Experimental Designs in Effectiveness and Implementation Research. Volume 39. 2018. PMID: 29328873


  37. Kowalski CP, McQuillan DB, Chawla N, Lyles C, Altschuler A, Uratsu CS, Bayliss EA, Heisler M, Grant RW. 'The Hand on the Doorknob': Visit Agenda Setting by Complex Patients and Their Primary Care Physicians. 2018. PMID: 29330237


  38. Chang E, Blondon K, Lyles CR, Jordan L, Ralston JD. Racial/ethnic variation in devices used to access patient portals. 2018. PMID: 29350513


  39. Ackerman SL, Sarkar U, Tieu L, Handley MA, Schillinger D, Hahn K, Hoskote M, Gourley G, Lyles C. Meaningful use in the safety net: a rapid ethnography of patient portal implementation at five community health centers in California. Volume 24 of Issue 5. 2017. PMID: 28340229


  40. Ratanawongsa N, Matta GY, Lyles CR, Koenig CJ, Barton JL, Yu K, Schillinger D. Multitasking and Silent Electronic Health Record Use in Ambulatory Visits. Volume 177 of Issue 9. 2017. PMID: 28672379


  41. Lyles CR, Fruchterman J, Youdelman M, Schillinger D. Legal, Practical, and Ethical Considerations for Making Online Patient Portals Accessible for All. 2017. PMID: 28817324


  42. Clarity C, Gourley G, Lyles C, Ackerman S, Handley MA, Schillinger D, Sarkar U, Conigliaro J. Implementation Science Workshop: Barriers and Facilitators to Increasing Mammography Screening Rates in California's Public Hospitals. Volume 32 of Issue 6. 2017. PMID: 28188571


  43. Hemmat S, Schillinger D, Lyles C, Ackerman S, Gourley G, Vittinghoff E, Handley M, Sarkar U. Performance Measurement and Target-Setting in California's Safety Net Health Systems. Volume 33 of Issue 2. 2017. PMID: 28555507


  44. Lyles C, Sarkar U. Seeing the Effect of Health Care Delivery Innovation in the Safety Net. Volume 177 of Issue 5. 2017. PMID: 28346579


  45. Tieu L, Schillinger D, Sarkar U, Hoskote M, Hahn KJ, Ratanawongsa N, Ralston JD, Lyles CR. Online patient websites for electronic health record access among vulnerable populations: portals to nowhere? Volume 24 of Issue e1. 2017. PMID: 27402138


  46. Lyles CR, Ratanawongsa N, Bolen SD, Samal L. mHealth and Health Information Technology Tools for Diverse Patients with Diabetes. 2017. PMID: 28326330


  47. Schillinger D, McNamara D, Crossley S, Lyles C, Moffet HH, Sarkar U, Duran N, Allen J, Liu J, Oryn D, Ratanawongsa N, Karter AJ. The Next Frontier in Communication and the ECLIPPSE Study: Bridging the Linguistic Divide in Secure Messaging. Volume 2017. 2017. PMID: 28265579


  48. Muller I, Rowsell A, Stuart B, Hayter V, Little P, Ganahl K, Müller G, Doyle G, Chang P, Lyles CR, Nutbeam D, Yardley L. Effects on Engagement and Health Literacy Outcomes of Web-Based Materials Promoting Physical Activity in People With Diabetes: An International Randomized Trial. 2017. PMID: 28115299


  49. Sarkar U, Lyles C, Steinman M, Huang ES, Moffet HH, Whitmer RA, Warton EM, Karter AJ. Changes in Medication Use After Dementia Diagnosis in an Observational Cohort of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus. Volume 65 of Issue 1. 2016. PMID: 27642180


  50. Lyles CR, Altschuler A, Chawla N, Kowalski C, McQuillan D, Bayliss E, Heisler M, Grant RW. User-Centered Design of a Tablet Waiting Room Tool for Complex Patients to Prioritize Discussion Topics for Primary Care Visits. 2016. PMID: 27627965


  51. Sarkar U, Gourley GI, Lyles CR, Tieu L, Clarity C, Newmark L, Singh K, Bates DW. Usability of Commercially Available Mobile Applications for Diverse Patients. Volume 31 of Issue 12. 2016. PMID: 27418347


  52. Ippolito MM, Lyles CR, Prendergast K, Marshall MB, Waxman E, Seligman HK. Food insecurity and diabetes self-management among food pantry clients. 2016. PMID: 27406399


  53. Lyles CR, Godbehere A, Le G, El Ghaoui L, Sarkar U. Applying Sparse Machine Learning Methods to Twitter: Analysis of the 2012 Change in Pap Smear Guidelines. A Sequential Mixed-Methods Study. Volume 2 of Issue 1. 2016. PMID: 27288093


  54. Ratanawongsa N, Barton JL, Lyles CR, Wu M, Yelin EH, Martinez D, Schillinger D. Computer use, language, and literacy in safety net clinic communication. 2016. PMID: 27274017


  55. Garg SK, Lyles CR, Ackerman S, Handley MA, Schillinger D, Gourley G, Aulakh V, Sarkar U. Qualitative analysis of programmatic initiatives to text patients with mobile devices in resource-limited health systems. Volume 16. 2016. PMID: 26851941


  56. Ratanawongsa N, Barton JL, Lyles CR, Wu M, Yelin EH, Martinez D, Schillinger D. Association Between Clinician Computer Use and Communication With Patients in Safety-Net Clinics. 2016. PMID: 26619393


  57. Tuot DS, Leeds K, Murphy EJ, Sarkar U, Lyles CR, Mekonnen T, Chen AH. Facilitators and barriers to implementing electronic referral and/or consultation systems: a qualitative study of 16 health organizations. Volume 15. 2015. PMID: 26687507


  58. Tieu L, Sarkar U, Schillinger D, Ralston JD, Ratanawongsa N, Pasick R, Lyles CR. Barriers and Facilitators to Online Portal Use Among Patients and Caregivers in a Safety Net Health Care System: A Qualitative Study. Volume 17 of Issue 12. 2015. PMID: 26681155


  59. Urmimala Sarkar, David Lown, Sara Ackerman, Courtney Lyles, Gato Gourley, Dean Schillinger, Margaret A Handley. Coordinated performance measurement and improvement efforts in California's safety net systems: early experience and lessons. 2015. PMID:


  60. Seligman HK, Lyles C, Marshall MB, Prendergast K, Smith MC, Headings A, Bradshaw G, Rosenmoss S, Waxman E. A Pilot Food Bank Intervention Featuring Diabetes-Appropriate Food Improved Glycemic Control Among Clients In Three States. 2015. PMID: 26526255


  61. Rowsell A, Muller I, Murray E, Little P, Byrne CD, Ganahl K, Müller G, Gibney S, Lyles CR, Lucas A, Nutbeam D, Yardley L. Views of People With High and Low Levels of Health Literacy About a Digital Intervention to Promote Physical Activity for Diabetes: A Qualitative Study in Five Countries. 2015. PMID: 26459743


  62. Mirsky JB, Tieu L, Lyles C, Sarkar U. A Mixed-Methods Study of Patient-Provider E-Mail Content in a Safety-Net Setting. Volume 21 of Issue 1. 2015. PMID: 26332306


  63. Lyles CR, Sarkar U, Schillinger D, Ralston JD, Allen JY, Nguyen R, Karter AJ. Refilling medications through an online patient portal: consistent improvements in adherence across racial/ethnic groups. Volume 23 of Issue e1. 2015. PMID: 26335983


  64. Lyles CR, Seligman HK, Parker MM, Moffet HH, Adler N, Schillinger D, Piette JD, Karter AJ. Financial Strain and Medication Adherence among Diabetes Patients in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System: The Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE). 2015. PMID: 26256117


  65. Mirsky JB, Tieu L, Lyles C, Sarkar U. Readability assessment of patient-provider electronic messages in a primary care setting. Volume 23 of Issue 1. 2015. PMID: 26177659


  66. Lyles C, Schillinger D, Sarkar U. Connecting the Dots: Health Information Technology Expansion and Health Disparities. Volume 12 of Issue 7. 2015. PMID: 26172977


  67. Courtney R. Lyles, Mark Nord, Jeyling Chou, Christine M. L. Kwan, Hilary K. Seligman. The San Francisco Chinese Food Security Module: Validation of a Translation of the US Household Food Security Survey Module. 2015. PMID:


  68. Rosland AM, Piette JD, Lyles CR, Parker MM, Moffet HH, Adler NE, Schillinger D, Karter AJ. Social support and lifestyle vs. medical diabetes self-management in the diabetes study of Northern California (DISTANCE). 2014. PMID: 24794624


  69. Chavez LJ, Ornelas IJ, Lyles CR, Williams EC. Racial/ethnic workplace discrimination: association with tobacco and alcohol use. 2014. PMID: 25441232


  70. Lyles CR, Sarkar U, Osborn CY. Getting a technology-based diabetes intervention ready for prime time: a review of usability testing studies. Volume 14 of Issue 10. 2014. PMID: 25173689


  71. C. Spees, K. Prendergast, E. Waxman, C. Lyles, K. Wolf, H. Seligman. Perceived Health Status Is Associated with Barriers to Diabetes Self-Management in Food Pantry Clients. 2014. PMID:


  72. Berkowitz SA, Karter AJ, Lyles CR, Liu JY, Schillinger D, Adler NE, Moffet HH, Sarkar U. Low socioeconomic status is associated with increased risk for hypoglycemia in diabetes patients: the Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE). Volume 25 of Issue 2. 2014. PMID: 24858863


  73. Sarkar U, Lyles CR, Parker MM, Allen J, Nguyen R, Moffet HH, Schillinger D, Karter AJ. Use of the refill function through an online patient portal is associated with improved adherence to statins in an integrated health system. Volume 52 of Issue 3. 2014. PMID: 24374412


  74. Moffet HH, Warton EM, Parker MM, Liu JY, Lyles CR, Karter AJ. The DISTANCE model for collaborative research: distributing analytic effort using scrambled data sets. 2014. PMID: 25584364


  75. Lyles CR, Aulakh V, Jameson W, Schillinger D, Yee H, Sarkar U. Innovation and transformation in California's safety net health care settings: an inside perspective. Volume 29 of Issue 6. 2013. PMID: 24170938


  76. Lyles CR, Drago-Ferguson S, Lopez A, Seligman HK. Nutritional assessment of free meal programs in San Francisco. 2013. PMID: 23721791


  77. Lyles CR, Sarkar U, Ralston JD, Adler N, Schillinger D, Moffet HH, Huang ES, Karter AJ. Patient-provider communication and trust in relation to use of an online patient portal among diabetes patients: The Diabetes and Aging Study. Volume 20 of Issue 6. 2013. PMID: 23676243


  78. Lyles CR, Schillinger D, Lopez A, Handley M, Ratanawongsa N, Sarkar U. Safety events during an automated telephone self-management support intervention. Volume 7 of Issue 3. 2013. PMID: 23759391


  79. Yu MK, Lyles CR, Bent-Shaw LA, Young BA. Sex disparities in diabetes process of care measures and self-care in high-risk patients. 2013. PMID: 23671877


  80. Lyles CR, Sarkar U. Additional considerations for 'Harnessing the cloud of patient experience'. Volume 22 of Issue 8. 2013. PMID: 23476069


  81. Baxi S, Lakin J, Lyles CR, Berkowitz S, Horton C, Sarkar U. Points for improvement: performance measurement for glycemic control in diabetes patients in a safety-net population. Volume 39 of Issue 3. 2013. PMID: 23516760


  82. Schickedanz A, Huang D, Lopez A, Cheung E, Lyles CR, Bodenheimer T, Sarkar U. Access, interest, and attitudes toward electronic communication for health care among patients in the medical safety net. Volume 28 of Issue 7. 2013. PMID: 23423453


  83. Ratanawongsa N, Karter AJ, Parker MM, Lyles CR, Heisler M, Moffet HH, Adler N, Warton EM, Schillinger D. Communication and medication refill adherence: the Diabetes Study of Northern California. 2013. PMID: 23277199


  84. Lyles CR, Wolf MS, Schillinger D, Davis TC, Dewalt D, Dahlke AR, Curtis L, Seligman HK. Food insecurity in relation to changes in hemoglobin A1c, self-efficacy, and fruit/vegetable intake during a diabetes educational intervention. 2012. PMID: 23275354


  85. Lyles CR, Grothaus L, Reid RJ, Sarkar U, Ralston JD. Communication about diabetes risk factors during between-visit encounters. Volume 18 of Issue 12. 2012. PMID: 23286610


  86. Kirchhoff AC, Lyles CR, Fluchel M, Wright J, Leisenring W. Limitations in health care access and utilization among long-term survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer. 2012. PMID: 23007632


  87. Lyles CR, Harris LT, Jordan L, Grothaus L, Wehnes L, Reid RJ, Ralston JD. Patient race/ethnicity and shared medical record use among diabetes patients. 2012. PMID: 22354209


  88. Katon W, Lyles CR, Parker MM, Karter AJ, Huang ES, Whitmer RA. Association of depression with increased risk of dementia in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes and Aging Study. 2011. PMID: 22147809


  89. Moskowitz D, Lyles CR, Karter AJ, Adler N, Moffet HH, Schillinger D. Patient reported interpersonal processes of care and perceived social position: the Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE). 2011. PMID: 21855266


  90. Lyles CR, Karter AJ, Young BA, Spigner C, Grembowski D, Schillinger D, Adler N. Provider factors and patient-reported healthcare discrimination in the Diabetes Study of California (DISTANCE). 2011. PMID: 21605956


  91. Lyles CR, Karter AJ, Young BA, Spigner C, Grembowski D, Schillinger D, Adler N. Patient-reported racial/ethnic healthcare provider discrimination and medication intensification in the Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE). 2011. PMID: 21547610


  92. Lyles CR, Harris LT, Le T, Flowers J, Tufano J, Britt D, Hoath J, Hirsch IB, Goldberg HI, Ralston JD. Qualitative evaluation of a mobile phone and web-based collaborative care intervention for patients with type 2 diabetes. 2011. PMID: 21406018


  93. Lyles CR, Karter AJ, Young BA, Spigner C, Grembowski D, Schillinger D, Adler NE. Correlates of patient-reported racial/ethnic health care discrimination in the Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE). 2011. PMID: 21317516


  94. Harris LT, Tufano J, Le T, Rees C, Lewis GA, Evert AB, Flowers J, Collins C, Hoath J, Hirsch IB, Goldberg HI, Ralston JD. Designing mobile support for glycemic control in patients with diabetes. 2010. PMID: 20937484