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Bernard Lo, MD
M_MED-DGIM-CORE
Professor Emeritus

1701 Divisadero
San Francisco, CA 94115
415-353-7999

Dr. Bernard Lo is Professor of Medicine Emeritus and Director of the Program in Medical Ethics Emeritus at UCSF. He currently is President of the Greenwall Foundation in New York, whose mission supporing bioethics research and young scholars in bioethics. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM), served on the IOM Council and as Chair of the IOM Board on Health Sciences Policy, and chaired a 2009 IOM committee on conflicts of interest in medicine. He is co-chair of the Standards Working Group of the California Institute of Regenerative Medicine, which recommends regulations for stem cell research funded by the state of California. Dr. Lo also serves on the Board of Directors of Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs (AAHRPP) and on the Medical Advisory Panel of Blue Cross/Blue Shield. Dr. Lo is author of Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: A Guide for Clinicians (5th ed., 2014) and of Ethical Issues in Clinical Research (2010). Dr. Lo and his colleagues have published around 200 peer-reviewed articles on ethical issues concerning decision-making near the end-of-life, stem cell research, oversight of human participants research, the doctor-patient relationship, and conflicts of interest. He continues his primary care internal medicine practice at UCSF.

Awards and Honors

2009   Distinguished Clinical Research Lecturer, UCSF, 2009
1996   Election, Institute of Medicine, 1996

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Recent Articles (184)

  1. Lo B, Goodman SN. Sharing Clinical Research Data-Finding the Right Balance. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Sep 01; 177(9):1241-1242.

  2. Lo B, Grady D. Payments to Physicians: Does the Amount of Money Make a Difference? JAMA. 2017 May 02; 317(17):1719-1720.

  3. Lo B, Grady D. Addressing Ethical Lapses in Research. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Apr 01; 177(4):461-462.

  4. Lo B, DeMets DL. Incentives for Clinical Trialists to Share Data. N Engl J Med. 2016 Sep 22; 375(12):1112-5.

  5. White DB, Ernecoff N, Buddadhumaruk P, Hong S, Weissfeld L, Curtis JR, Luce JM, Lo B. Prevalence of and Factors Related to Discordance About Prognosis Between Physicians and Surrogate Decision Makers of Critically Ill Patients. JAMA. 2016 May 17; 315(19):2086-94.

  6. Lo B, Barnes M. Federal Research Regulations for the 21st Century. N Engl J Med. 2016 Mar 31; 374(13):1205-7.

  7. Ernecoff NC, Witteman HO, Chon K, Chen YI, Buddadhumaruk P, Chiarchiaro J, Shotsberger KJ, Shields AM, Myers BA, Hough CL, Carson SS, Lo B, Matthay MA, Anderson WG, Peterson MW, Steingrub JS, Arnold RM, White DB. Key stakeholders' perceptions of the acceptability and usefulness of a tablet-based tool to improve communication and shared decision making in ICUs. J Crit Care. 2016 Jun; 33:19-25.

  8. Paul-Emile K, Smith AK, Lo B, Fernández A. Dealing with Racist Patients. N Engl J Med. 2016 Feb 25; 374(8):708-11.

  9. Bosslet GT, Pope TM, Rubenfeld GD, Lo B, Truog RD, Rushton CH, Curtis JR, Ford DW, Osborne M, Misak C, Au DH, Azoulay E, Brody B, Fahy BG, Hall JB, Kesecioglu J, Kon AA, Lindell KO, White DB. An Official ATS/AACN/ACCP/ESICM/SCCM Policy Statement: Responding to Requests for Potentially Inappropriate Treatments in Intensive Care Units. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Jun 01; 191(11):1318-30.

  10. Lo B. Sharing clinical trial data: maximizing benefits, minimizing risk. JAMA. 2015 Feb 24; 313(8):793-4.

  11. Anderson WG, Cimino JW, Ernecoff NC, Ungar A, Shotsberger KJ, Pollice LA, Buddadhumaruk P, Carson SS, Curtis JR, Hough CL, Lo B, Matthay MA, Peterson MW, Steingrub JS, White DB. A multicenter study of key stakeholders' perspectives on communicating with surrogates about prognosis in intensive care units. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2015 Feb; 12(2):142-52.

  12. Pletcher MJ, Lo B, Grady D. Criteria for waiver of informed consent for quality improvement research-reply. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Jan; 175(1):143.

  13. Lo B. Updating research oversight for the 21st century. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Dec 16; 161(12):919-20.

  14. Cohen IG, Amarasingham R, Shah A, Xie B, Lo B. The legal and ethical concerns that arise from using complex predictive analytics in health care. Health Aff (Millwood). 2014 Jul; 33(7):1139-47.

  15. Pletcher MJ, Lo B, Grady D. Informed consent in randomized quality improvement trials: a critical barrier for learning health systems. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 May; 174(5):668-70.

  16. Smith AK, Lo B, Aronson L. Elder self-neglect--how can a physician help? N Engl J Med. 2013 Dec 26; 369(26):2476-9.

  17. Lo B, Ott C. What is the enemy in CME, conflicts of interest or bias? JAMA. 2013 Sep 11; 310(10):1019-20.

  18. Anderson WG, Cimino JW, Lo B. Seriously ill hospitalized patients' perspectives on the benefits and harms of two models of hospital CPR discussions. Patient Educ Couns. 2013 Dec; 93(3):633-40.

  19. Smith AK, Lo B, Sudore R. When previously expressed wishes conflict with best interests. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Jul 08; 173(13):1241-5.

  20. Lo B, Grady C. Ethical considerations in HIV cure research: points to consider. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2013 May; 8(3):243-9.

  21. Lee Char SJ, Hills NK, Lo B, Kirkwood KS. Informed consent for innovative surgery: a survey of patients and surgeons. Surgery. 2013 Apr; 153(4):473-80.

  22. Smith L, O'Sullivan P, Lo B, Chen H. An educational intervention to improve resident comfort with communication at the end of life. J Palliat Med. 2013 Jan; 16(1):54-9.

  23. Smith AK, Lo B. The problem with actually tattooing DNR across your chest. J Gen Intern Med. 2012 Oct; 27(10):1238-9.

  24. Lo B. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: what lessons for elsewhere? Lancet. 2012 Sep 08; 380(9845):869-70.

  25. White DB, Jonsen A, Lo B. Ethical challenge: when clinicians act as surrogates for unrepresented patients. Am J Crit Care. 2012 May; 21(3):202-7.

  26. Steinbrook R, Lo B. Medical journals and conflicts of interest. J Law Med Ethics. 2012; 40(3):488-99.

  27. Lo B. The future of conflicts of interest: a call for professional standards. J Law Med Ethics. 2012; 40(3):441-51.

  28. Smith AK, Williams BA, Lo B. Discussing overall prognosis with the very elderly. N Engl J Med. 2011 Dec 08; 365(23):2149-51.

  29. Lo B, Barnes M. Protecting research participants while reducing regulatory burdens. JAMA. 2011 Nov 23; 306(20):2260-1.

  30. Lo B. Retainer medicine: why not for all? Ann Intern Med. 2011 Nov 01; 155(9):641-2.

  31. Sengupta S, Lo B, Strauss RP, Eron J, Gifford AL. Pilot study demonstrating effectiveness of targeted education to improve informed consent understanding in AIDS clinical trials. AIDS Care. 2011 Nov; 23(11):1382-91.

  32. Lo B, Kelch RP, Grady D. Invited commentary--illuminating physicians' financial relationships with industry. Arch Intern Med. 2011 Mar 28; 171(6):587-9.

  33. Fernandez A, Ettinger KM, Lo B. Case 34-2010: A woman with an incorrect operation. N Engl J Med. 2011 Mar 03; 364(9):883; author reply 883.

  34. Sengupta S, Lo B, Strauss RP, Eron J, Gifford AL. How researchers define vulnerable populations in HIV/AIDS clinical trials. AIDS Behav. 2010 Dec; 14(6):1313-9.

  35. Lo B. Responding to incidental findings on research imaging studies: now what? Arch Intern Med. 2010 Sep 27; 170(17):1522-4.

  36. Sirotin N, Wolf LE, Pollack LM, Catania JA, Dolcini MM, Lo B. IRBs and ethically challenging protocols: views of IRB chairs about useful resources. IRB. 2010 Sep-Oct; 32(5):10-9.

  37. Boyd EA, Lo B, Evans LR, Malvar G, Apatira L, Luce JM, White DB. "It's not just what the doctor tells me:" factors that influence surrogate decision-makers' perceptions of prognosis. Crit Care Med. 2010 May; 38(5):1270-5.

  38. White DB, Malvar G, Karr J, Lo B, Curtis JR. Expanding the paradigm of the physician's role in surrogate decision-making: an empirically derived framework. Crit Care Med. 2010 Mar; 38(3):743-50.

  39. Lo B. Serving two masters--conflicts of interest in academic medicine. N Engl J Med. 2010 Feb 25; 362(8):669-71.

  40. Lo B, Parham L, Cedars M, Fisher S, Gates E, Giudice L, Halme DG, Hershon W, Kriegstein A, Rao R, Roberts C, Wagner R. Research ethics. NIH guidelines for stem cell research and gamete donors. Science. 2010 Feb 19; 327(5968):962-3.

  41. Lo B, Parham L, Alvarez-Buylla A, Cedars M, Conklin B, Fisher S, Gates E, Giudice L, Halme DG, Hershon W, Kriegstein A, Kwok PY, Wagner R. Cloning mice and men: prohibiting the use of iPS cells for human reproductive cloning. Cell Stem Cell. 2010 Jan 08; 6(1):16-20.

  42. Lo B, Parham L. Resolving ethical issues in stem cell clinical trials: the example of Parkinson disease. J Law Med Ethics. 2010; 38(2):257-66.

  43. Lo B. Commentary: Conflict of interest policies: an opportunity for the medical profession to take the lead. Acad Med. 2010 Jan; 85(1):9-11.

  44. Lo B, Parham L. The impact of web 2.0 on the doctor-patient relationship. J Law Med Ethics. 2010; 38(1):17-26.

  45. Lo B. Ethical Issues in Clinical Research: A Practical Guide. 2010.

  46. Lo B, Grady D. Strengthening institutional review board review of highly innovative interventions in clinical trials. JAMA. 2009 Dec 23; 302(24):2697-8.

  47. Schenker Y, Fernandez A, Lo B. Placebo prescriptions are missed opportunities for doctor-patient communication. Am J Bioeth. 2009 Dec; 9(12):48-50.

  48. Lo B, Conklin BR. Consent: criteria should be drawn up for tissue donors. Nature. 2009 Oct 01; 461(7264):593.

  49. Quill TE, Lo B, Brock DW, Meisel A. Last-resort options for palliative sedation. Ann Intern Med. 2009 Sep 15; 151(6):421-4.

  50. White DB, Evans LR, Bautista CA, Luce JM, Lo B. Are physicians' recommendations to limit life support beneficial or burdensome? Bringing empirical data to the debate. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Aug 15; 180(4):320-5.

  51. Lo B, Parham L. Ethical issues in stem cell research. Endocr Rev. 2009 May; 30(3):204-13.

  52. Aalto-Setälä K, Conklin BR, Lo B. Obtaining consent for future research with induced pluripotent cells: opportunities and challenges. PLoS Biol. 2009 Feb 24; 7(2):e42.

  53. Lo B, Parham L, Broom C, Cedars M, Gates E, Giudice L, Halme DG, Hershon W, Kriegstein A, Kwok PY, Oberman M, Roberts C, Wagner R. Importing human pluripotent stem cell lines derived at another institution: tailoring review to ethical concerns. Cell Stem Cell. 2009 Feb 06; 4(2):115-23.

  54. White DB, Katz MH, Luce JM, Lo B. Who should receive life support during a public health emergency? Using ethical principles to improve allocation decisions. Ann Intern Med. 2009 Jan 20; 150(2):132-8.

  55. Lo B. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: A Guide for Clinicians. 2009.

  56. Apatira L, Boyd EA, Malvar G, Evans LR, Luce JM, Lo B, White DB. Hope, truth, and preparing for death: perspectives of surrogate decision makers. Ann Intern Med. 2008 Dec 16; 149(12):861-8.

  57. Evans LR, Boyd EA, Malvar G, Apatira L, Luce JM, Lo B, White DB. Surrogate decision-makers' perspectives on discussing prognosis in the face of uncertainty. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Jan 01; 179(1):48-53.

  58. White DB, Engelberg RA, Wenrich MD, Lo B, Curtis JR. The language of prognostication in intensive care units. Med Decis Making. 2010 Jan-Feb; 30(1):76-83.

  59. Schenker Y, Lo B, Ettinger KM, Fernandez A. Navigating language barriers under difficult circumstances. Ann Intern Med. 2008 Aug 19; 149(4):264-9.

  60. Martinez W, Lo B. Medical students' experiences with medical errors: an analysis of medical student essays. Med Educ. 2008 Jul; 42(7):733-41.

  61. Lo B, Kriegstein A, Grady D. Clinical trials in stem cell transplantation: guidelines for scientific and ethical review. Clin Trials. 2008; 5(5):517-22.

  62. Lo B. Human papillomavirus vaccination programmes. BMJ. 2007 Aug 25; 335(7616):357-8.

  63. White DB, Curtis JR, Wolf LE, Prendergast TJ, Taichman DB, Kuniyoshi G, Acerra F, Lo B, Luce JM. Life support for patients without a surrogate decision maker: who decides? Ann Intern Med. 2007 Jul 03; 147(1):34-40.

  64. Lo B, Padian N, Barnes M. The obligation to provide antiretroviral treatment in HIV prevention trials. AIDS. 2007 Jun 19; 21(10):1229-31.

  65. Lomax GP, Hall ZW, Lo B. Responsible oversight of human stem cell research: the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine's medical and ethical standards. PLoS Med. 2007 May; 4(5):e114.

  66. Hecht FM, Wolf LE, Lo B. Lessons from an HIV transmission pair. J Infect Dis. 2007 May 01; 195(9):1239-41.

  67. Murray E, Pollack L, White M, Lo B. Clinical decision-making: physicians' preferences and experiences. BMC Fam Pract. 2007 Mar 15; 8:10.

  68. White DB, Engelberg RA, Wenrich MD, Lo B, Curtis JR. Prognostication during physician-family discussions about limiting life support in intensive care units. Crit Care Med. 2007 Feb; 35(2):442-8.

  69. Zettler P, Wolf LE, Lo B. Establishing procedures for institutional oversight of stem cell research. Acad Med. 2007 Jan; 82(1):6-10.

  70. Lo B. Professionalism in the age of computerised medical records. Singapore Med J. 2006 Dec; 47(12):1018-22.

  71. Murray E, Pollack L, White M, Lo B. Clinical decision-making: Patients' preferences and experiences. Patient Educ Couns. 2007 Feb; 65(2):189-96.

  72. Lo B. Strengthening community consultation in critical care and emergency research. Crit Care Med. 2006 Aug; 34(8):2236-8.

  73. White DB, Curtis JR, Lo B, Luce JM. Decisions to limit life-sustaining treatment for critically ill patients who lack both decision-making capacity and surrogate decision-makers. Crit Care Med. 2006 Aug; 34(8):2053-9.

  74. Lo B. HPV vaccine and adolescents' sexual activity. BMJ. 2006 May 13; 332(7550):1106-7.

  75. Scharschmidt T, Lo B. Clinical trial design issues raised during recombinant DNA advisory committee review of gene transfer protocols. Hum Gene Ther. 2006 Apr; 17(4):448-54.

  76. Lo B, Zettler P, Cedars MI, Gates E, Kriegstein AR, Oberman M, Reijo Pera R, Wagner RM, Wuerth MT, Wolf LE, Yamamoto KR. A new era in the ethics of human embryonic stem cell research. Stem Cells. 2005 Nov-Dec; 23(10):1454-9.

  77. Lo B, Rubenfeld G. Palliative sedation in dying patients: "we turn to it when everything else hasn't worked". JAMA. 2005 Oct 12; 294(14):1810-6.

  78. Lo B, Katz MH. Clinical decision making during public health emergencies: ethical considerations. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Oct 04; 143(7):493-8.

  79. Swenson SL, Zettler P, Lo B. 'She gave it her best shot right away': patient experiences of biomedical and patient-centered communication. Patient Educ Couns. 2006 May; 61(2):200-11.

  80. Wolf LE, Zandecki J, Lo B. Institutional review board guidance on pediatric research: missed opportunities. J Pediatr. 2005 Jul; 147(1):84-9.

  81. Wolf LE, Walden JF, Lo B. Human subjects issues and IRB review in practice-based research. Ann Fam Med. 2005 May-Jun; 3 Suppl 1:S30-7.

  82. Lo B, Dornbrand L, Dubler NN. HIPAA and patient care: the role for professional judgment. JAMA. 2005 Apr 13; 293(14):1766-71.

  83. Lo B. Advance care planning. Am J Geriatr Cardiol. 2004 Nov-Dec; 13(6):316-20.

  84. Lo B, Chou V, Cedars MI, Gates E, Taylor RN, Wagner RM, Wolf L, Yamamoto KR. Informed consent in human oocyte, embryo, and embryonic stem cell research. Fertil Steril. 2004 Sep; 82(3):559-63.

  85. Lo B, Steinbrook R. Resuscitating advance directives. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Jul 26; 164(14):1501-6.

  86. Wolf LE, Lo B. Untapped potential: IRB guidance for the ethical research use of stored biological materials. IRB. 2004 Jul-Aug; 26(4):1-8.

  87. Wolf LE, Lo B. Informed consent in HIV research. Focus. 2004 Apr; 19(4):5-6.

  88. Lo B. Research with vulnerable participants. J Clin Ethics. 2004; 15(1):55-60.

  89. Murray E, Lo B, Pollack L, Donelan K, Lee K. Direct-to-consumer advertising: public perceptions of its effects on health behaviors, health care, and the doctor-patient relationship. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2004 Jan-Feb; 17(1):6-18.

  90. Wolf LE, Lo B, Gostin LO. Legal barriers to implementing recommendations for universal, routine prenatal HIV testing. J Law Med Ethics. 2004; 32(1):137-47.

  91. Murray E, Lo B, Pollack L, Donelan K, Lee K. Direct-to-consumer advertising: physicians' views of its effects on quality of care and the doctor-patient relationship. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2003 Nov-Dec; 16(6):513-24.

  92. Murray E, Lo B, Pollack L, Donelan K, Catania J, Lee K, Zapert K, Turner R. The impact of health information on the Internet on health care and the physician-patient relationship: national U.S. survey among 1.050 U.S. physicians. J Med Internet Res. 2003 Jul-Sep; 5(3):e17.

  93. Lo B, Chou V, Cedars MI, Gates E, Taylor RN, Wagner RM, Wolf L, Yamamoto KR. Medicine. Consent from donors for embryo and stem cell research. Science. 2003 Aug 15; 301(5635):921.

  94. Lo B, Bayer R. Establishing ethical trials for treatment and prevention of AIDS in developing countries. BMJ. 2003 Aug 09; 327(7410):337-9.

  95. Murray E, Lo B, Pollack L, Donelan K, Catania J, White M, Zapert K, Turner R. The impact of health information on the internet on the physician-patient relationship: patient perceptions. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Jul 28; 163(14):1727-34.

  96. Lo B, Groman M. Oversight of quality improvement: focusing on benefits and risks. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Jun 23; 163(12):1481-6.

  97. Lo B, Kates LW, Ruston D, Arnold RM, Cohen CB, Puchalski CM, Pantilat SZ, Rabow MW, Schreiber RS, Tulsky JA. Responding to requests regarding prayer and religious ceremonies by patients near the end of life and their families. J Palliat Med. 2003 Jun; 6(3):409-15.

  98. Lo B, Chou V. Directions in research on spiritual and religious isues for imprroving palliative care. Palliat Support Care. 2003 Mar; 1(1):3-5.

  99. Sengupta S, Lo B. The roles and experiences of nonaffiliated and non-scientist members of institutional review boards. Acad Med. 2003 Feb; 78(2):212-8.

  100. Wolf LE, Croughan M, Lo B. The challenges of IRB review and human subjects protections in practice-based research. Med Care. 2002 Jun; 40(6):521-9.

  101. Lo B, Dornbrand L, Wolf LE, Groman M. The Wendland case--withdrawing life support from incompetent patients who are not terminally ill. N Engl J Med. 2002 May 09; 346(19):1489-93.

  102. Crawley LM, Marshall PA, Lo B, Koenig BA. Strategies for culturally effective end-of-life care. Ann Intern Med. 2002 May 07; 136(9):673-9.

  103. Hruby M, Pantilat SZ, Lo B. How do patients view the role of the primary care physician in inpatient care? Dis Mon. 2002 Apr; 48(4):230-8.

  104. Lo B, Ruston D, Kates LW, Arnold RM, Cohen CB, Faber-Langendoen K, Pantilat SZ, Puchalski CM, Quill TR, Rabow MW, Schreiber S, Sulmasy DP, Tulsky JA. Discussing religious and spiritual issues at the end of life: a practical guide for physicians. JAMA. 2002 Feb 13; 287(6):749-54.

  105. Lo B. Ethical and policy implications of hospitalist systems. Am J Med. 2001 Dec 21; 111(9B):48-52.

  106. Hruby M, Pantilat SZ, Lo B. How do patients view the role of the primary care physician in inpatient care? Am J Med. 2001 Dec 21; 111(9B):21S-25S.

  107. Wolf LE, Lo B, Beckerman KP, Dorenbaum A, Kilpatrick SJ, Weintrub PS. When parents reject interventions to reduce postnatal human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001 Aug; 155(8):927-33.

  108. Edlin BR, Seal KH, Lorvick J, Kral AH, Ciccarone DH, Moore LD, Lo B. Is it justifiable to withhold treatment for hepatitis C from illicit-drug users? N Engl J Med. 2001 Jul 19; 345(3):211-5.

  109. Lo B, Wolf L, Sengupta S. Ethical issues in early detection of HIV infection to reduce vertical transmission. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000 Dec 15; 25 Suppl 2:S136-43.

  110. Lo B, Wolf LE, Berkeley A. Conflict-of-interest policies for investigators in clinical trials. N Engl J Med. 2000 Nov 30; 343(22):1616-20.

  111. Lo B, Alpers A. Uses and abuses of prescription drug information in pharmacy benefits management programs. JAMA. 2000 Feb 09; 283(6):801-6.

  112. Bodenheimer T, Lo B, Casalino L. Primary care physicians should be coordinators, not gatekeepers. JAMA. 1999 Jun 02; 281(21):2045-9.

  113. Lo B, Quill T, Tulsky J. Discussing palliative care with patients. ACP-ASIM End-of-Life Care Consensus Panel. American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine. Ann Intern Med. 1999 May 04; 130(9):744-9.

  114. Lo B, Snyder L. Care at the end of life: guiding practice where there are no easy answers. Ann Intern Med. 1999 May 04; 130(9):772-4.

  115. Alpers A, Lo B. The Supreme Court addresses physician-assisted suicide. Can its rulings improve palliative care? Arch Fam Med. 1999 May-Jun; 8(3):200-5.

  116. Pantilat SZ, Chesney M, Lo B. Effect of incentives on the use of indicated services in managed care. West J Med. 1999 Mar; 170(3):137-42.

  117. Alpers A, Lo B. Avoiding family feuds: responding to surrogate demands for life-sustaining interventions. J Law Med Ethics. 1999; 27(1):74-80.

  118. Lo B. The patient-provider relationship: opportunities as well as problems. J Gen Intern Med. 1999 Jan; 14 Suppl 1:S41-4.

  119. Lurie P, Miller S, Hecht F, Chesney M, Lo B. Postexposure prophylaxis after nonoccupational HIV exposure: clinical, ethical, and policy considerations. JAMA. 1998 Nov 25; 280(20):1769-73.

  120. Kim HN, Gates E, Lo B. What hysterectomy [corrected] patients want to know about the roles of residents and medical students in their care. Acad Med. 1998 Mar; 73(3):339-41.

  121. Quill TE, Lo B, Brock DW. Palliative options of last resort: a comparison of voluntarily stopping eating and drinking, terminal sedation, physician-assisted suicide, and voluntary active euthanasia. JAMA. 1997 Dec 17; 278(23):2099-104.

  122. Wu AW, Cavanaugh TA, McPhee SJ, Lo B, Micco GP. To tell the truth: ethical and practical issues in disclosing medical mistakes to patients. J Gen Intern Med. 1997 Dec; 12(12):770-5.

  123. Gallagher TH, Lo B, Chesney M, Christensen K. How do physicians respond to patient's requests for costly, unindicated services? J Gen Intern Med. 1997 Nov; 12(11):663-8.

  124. Oscherwitz T, Tulsky JP, Roger S, Sciortino S, Alpers A, Royce S, Lo B. Detention of persistently nonadherent patients with tuberculosis. JAMA. 1997 Sep 10; 278(10):843-6.

  125. Alpers A, Lo B. Does it make clinical sense to equate terminally ill patients who require life-sustaining interventions with those who do not? JAMA. 1997 Jun 04; 277(21):1705-8.

  126. Weiss AH, Fortinsky RH, Laughlin J, Lo B, Adler NE, Mudge C, Dimand RJ. Parental consent for pediatric cadaveric organ donation. Transplant Proc. 1997 May; 29(3):1896-901.

  127. Gurley RJ, Lum N, Sande M, Lo B, Katz MH. Persons found in their homes helpless or dead. N Engl J Med. 1996 Jun 27; 334(26):1710-6.

  128. Tulsky JA, Chesney MA, Lo B. See one, do one, teach one? House staff experience discussing do-not-resuscitate orders. Arch Intern Med. 1996 Jun 24; 156(12):1285-9.

  129. Lo B, Rothenberg KH, Vasko M. Physician-assisted suicide in context: constitutional, regulatory, and professional challenges. J Law Med Ethics. 1996; 24(3):181-2.

  130. Tulsky JA, Alpers A, Lo B. A middle ground on physician-assisted suicide. Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 1996; 5(1):33-43.

  131. Lo B. End-of-life care after termination of SUPPORT. Hastings Cent Rep. 1995 Nov-Dec; 25(6):S6-8.

  132. Lo B. Improving care near the end of life. Why is it so hard? JAMA. 1995 Nov 22-29; 274(20):1634-6.

  133. Alpers A, Lo B. Physician-assisted suicide in Oregon. A bold experiment. JAMA. 1995 Aug 09; 274(6):483-7.

  134. Asai A, Fukuhara S, Lo B. Attitudes of Japanese and Japanese-American physicians towards life-sustaining treatment. Lancet. 1995 Aug 05; 346(8971):356-9.

  135. Tulsky JA, Chesney MA, Lo B. How do medical residents discuss resuscitation with patients? J Gen Intern Med. 1995 Aug; 10(8):436-42.

  136. Hyman A, Schillinger D, Lo B. Laws mandating reporting of domestic violence. Do they promote patient well-being? JAMA. 1995 Jun 14; 273(22):1781-7.

  137. Ziv TA, Lo B. Denial of care to illegal immigrants. Proposition 187 in California. N Engl J Med. 1995 Apr 20; 332(16):1095-8.

  138. Alpers A, Lo B. When is CPR futile? JAMA. 1995 Jan 11; 273(2):156-8.

  139. Lieu TA, Glauber JH, Fuentes-Afflick E, Lo B. Effects of vaccine information pamphlets on parents' attitudes. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994 Sep; 148(9):921-5.

  140. Rubin SM, Strull WM, Fialkow MF, Weiss SJ, Lo B. Increasing the completion of the durable power of attorney for health care. A randomized, controlled trial. JAMA. 1994 Jan 19; 271(3):209-12.

  141. Wu AW, Folkman S, McPhee SJ, Lo B. How house officers cope with their mistakes. West J Med. 1993 Nov; 159(5):565-9.

  142. Mittelberger JA, Lo B, Martin D, Uhlmann RF. Impact of a procedure-specific do not resuscitate order form on documentation of do not resuscitate orders. Arch Intern Med. 1993 Jan 25; 153(2):228-32.

  143. Avins AL, Woods WJ, Lo B, Hulley SB. A novel use of the link-file system for longitudinal studies of HIV infection: a practical solution to an ethical dilemma. AIDS. 1993 Jan; 7(1):109-13.

  144. Gartrell NK, Milliken N, Goodson WH, Thiemann S, Lo B. Physician-patient sexual contact. Prevalence and problems. West J Med. 1992 Aug; 157(2):139-43.

  145. Lo B, Steinbrook R. Health care workers infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. The next steps. JAMA. 1992 Feb 26; 267(8):1100-5.

  146. Steinbrook R, Lo B. The Oregon Medicaid Demonstration Project--will it provide adequate medical care? N Engl J Med. 1992 Jan 30; 326(5):340-4.

  147. Alpers A, Lo B. Futility: not just a medical issue. Law Med Health Care. 1992; 20(4):327-9.

  148. Sehgal A, Galbraith A, Chesney M, Schoenfeld P, Charles G, Lo B. How strictly do dialysis patients want their advance directives followed? JAMA. 1992 Jan 01; 267(1):59-63.

  149. Lo B, Steinbrook R. Beyond the Cruzan case: the U.S. Supreme Court and medical practice. Ann Intern Med. 1991 May 15; 114(10):895-901.

  150. Wu AW, Folkman S, McPhee SJ, Lo B. Do house officers learn from their mistakes? JAMA. 1991 Apr 24; 265(16):2089-94.

  151. Lo B. Unanswered questions about DNR orders. JAMA. 1991 Apr 10; 265(14):1874-5.

  152. Lo B, Rouse F, Dornbrand L. Family decision making on trial. Who decides for incompetent patients? N Engl J Med. 1990 Apr 26; 322(17):1228-32.

  153. Steinbrook R, Lo B. Informing physicians about promising new treatments for severe illnesses. JAMA. 1990 Apr 18; 263(15):2078-82.

  154. Smedira NG, Evans BH, Grais LS, Cohen NH, Lo B, Cooke M, Schecter WP, Fink C, Epstein-Jaffe E, May C. Withholding and withdrawal of life support from the critically ill. N Engl J Med. 1990 Feb 01; 322(5):309-15.

  155. Lo B. Clinical ethics and HIV-related illnesses: issues in treatment and health services research. Med Care Rev. 1990; 47(1):15-32.

  156. Avins AL, Lo B. To tell or not to tell: the ethical dilemmas of HIV test notification in epidemiologic research. Am J Public Health. 1989 Nov; 79(11):1544-8.

  157. Wachter RM, Luce JM, Hearst N, Lo B. Decisions about resuscitation: inequities among patients with different diseases but similar prognoses. Ann Intern Med. 1989 Sep 15; 111(6):525-32.

  158. Lo B, Dornbrand L. Understanding the benefits and burdens of tube feedings. Arch Intern Med. 1989 Sep; 149(9):1925-6.

  159. Lo B, Steinbrook RL, Cooke M, Coates TJ, Walters EJ, Hulley SB. Voluntary screening for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Weighing the benefits and harms. Ann Intern Med. 1989 May 01; 110(9):727-33.

  160. Wanzer SH, Federman DD, Adelstein SJ, Cassel CK, Cassem EH, Cranford RE, Hook EW, Lo B, Moertel CG, Safar P. The physician's responsibility toward hopelessly ill patients. A second look. N Engl J Med. 1989 Mar 30; 320(13):844-9.

  161. Wachter RM, Luce JM, Lo B, Raffin TA. Life-sustaining treatment for patients with AIDS. Chest. 1989 Mar; 95(3):647-52.

  162. Overby KJ, Lo B, Litt IF. Knowledge and concerns about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and their relationship to behavior among adolescents with hemophilia. Pediatrics. 1989 Feb; 83(2):204-10.

  163. Steinbrook R, Lo B. Artificial feeding--solid ground, not a slippery slope. N Engl J Med. 1988 Feb 04; 318(5):286-90.

  164. Lo B. Behind closed doors. Promises and pitfalls of ethics committees. N Engl J Med. 1987 Jul 02; 317(1):46-50.

  165. Lo B, McLeod GA, Saika G. Patient attitudes to discussing life-sustaining treatment. Arch Intern Med. 1986 Aug; 146(8):1613-5.

  166. Lo B, Dornbrand L. The case of Claire Conroy: will administrative review safeguard incompetent patients? Ann Intern Med. 1986 Jun; 104(6):869-73.

  167. Steinbrook R, Lo B, Moulton J, Saika G, Hollander H, Volberding PA. Preferences of homosexual men with AIDS for life-sustaining treatment. N Engl J Med. 1986 Feb 13; 314(7):457-60.

  168. Steinbrook R, Lo B. The case of Elizabeth Bouvia. Starvation, suicide, or problem patient? Arch Intern Med. 1986 Jan; 146(1):161-4.

  169. Lo B. The Bartling case. Protecting patients from harm while respecting their wishes. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1986 Jan; 34(1):44-8.

  170. Steinbrook R, Lo B, Tirpack J, Dilley JW, Volberding PA. Ethical dilemmas in caring for patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1985 Nov; 103(5):787-90.

  171. Miller A, Lo B. How do doctors discuss do-not-resuscitate orders? West J Med. 1985 Aug; 143(2):256-8.

  172. Lo B, Saika G, Strull W, Thomas E, Showstack J. 'Do not resuscitate' decisions. A prospective study at three teaching hospitals. Arch Intern Med. 1985 Jun; 145(6):1115-7.

  173. Strull WM, Lo B, Charles G. Do patients want to participate in medical decision making? JAMA. 1984 Dec 07; 252(21):2990-4.

  174. Lo B, Dornbrand L. Guiding the hand that feeds. Caring for the demented elderly. N Engl J Med. 1984 Aug 09; 311(6):402-4.

  175. Lo B. The death of Clarence Herbert: withdrawing care is not murder. Ann Intern Med. 1984 Aug; 101(2):248-51.

  176. Steinbrook R, Lo B. Decision making for incompetent patients by designated proxy. California's new law. N Engl J Med. 1984 Jun 14; 310(24):1598-601.

  177. McPhee SJ, Lo B, Saika GY, Meltzer R. How good is communication between primary care physicians and subspecialty consultants? Arch Intern Med. 1984 Jun; 144(6):1265-8.

  178. McPhee SJ, Myers LP, Lo B, Charles G. Cost containment confronts physicians. Ann Intern Med. 1984 Apr; 100(4):604-6.

  179. Lo B, Steinbrook RL. Deciding whether to resuscitate. Arch Intern Med. 1983 Aug; 143(8):1561-3.

  180. Lo B, Schroeder SA. Frequency of ethical dilemmas in a medical inpatient service. Arch Intern Med. 1981 Jul; 141(8):1062-4.

  181. Lo B, Jonsen AR. Clinical decisions to limit treatment. Ann Intern Med. 1980 Nov; 93(5):764-8.

  182. Jonsen AR, Cassel C, Lo B, Perkins HS. The ethics of medicine: an annotated bibliography of recent literature. Ann Intern Med. 1980 Jan; 92(1):136.

  183. Lo B, Jonsen AR. Ethical decisions in the care of a patient terminally ill with metastatic cancer. Ann Intern Med. 1980 Jan; 92(1):107-11.

  184. Lo B, Jonsen AR. Ethical dilemmas and the clinician. Ann Intern Med. 1980 Jan; 92(1):116-7.

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